Purpose: Biomarkers of ionising radiation exposure are useful in a variety of scenarios, such as medical diagnostic imaging, occupational exposures, and spaceflight. This study investigates to what extent microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures in mouse peripheral blood can be used as biomarkers for exposures to radiation with low and high linear energy transfers. Materials and methods: Mice were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.5, or 5.0 Gy γ-rays (dose rate of 0.0136 Gy/s) or with doses of 0.1 or 0.5 Gy (56)Fe ions (dose rate of 0.00208 Gy/s). Total RNA was isolated from whole blood at 6 h or 24 h after irradiation. Three animals per irradiation condition were used. Differentially expressed miRNA were determined by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: miRNA expression signatures were radiation type-specific and dose- and time-dependent. The differentially expressed miRNA were expressed in either one condition (71%) or multiple conditions (29%). Classifiers based on the differentially expressed miRNA predicted radiation type or dose with accuracies between 75% and 100%. Gene-ontology analyses show that miRNA induced by irradiation are involved in the control of several biological processes, such as mRNA transcription regulation, nucleic-acid metabolism, and development. Conclusion: miRNA signatures induced by ionising radiation in mouse blood are radiation type- and radiation dose-specific. These findings underline the complexity of the radiation response and the importance of miRNA in it.
"Taken together our results does point to greater effectiveness of a relatively low dose of 56Fe radiation in intestinal tumor induction than the equitoxic γ radiation dose. We believe that in addition to physical differences in energy deposition between the two types of radiation, higher tumorigenic potential of heavy ion 56Fe radiation is due to higher transformation potential via differential gene-mutations –, distinct gene expression/micro-RNA profile –, and discrete damage response pathways and oncogenic signaling compared to low-LET radiation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) after exposure to low linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation such as γ-ray is highlighted by the studies in atom bomb survivors. On the contrary, CRC risk prediction after exposure to high-LET cosmic heavy ion radiation exposure is hindered due to scarcity of in vivo data. Therefore, intestinal tumor frequency, size, cluster, and grade were studied in APCMin/+ mice (n = 20 per group; 6 to 8 wks old; female) 100 to 110 days after exposure to 1.6 or 4 Gy of heavy ion 56Fe radiation (energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon) and results were compared to γ radiation doses of 2 or 5 Gy, which are equitoxic to 1.6 and 4 Gy 56Fe respectively. Due to relevance of lower doses to radiotherapy treatment fractions and space exploration, we followed 2 Gy γ and equitoxic 1.6 Gy 56Fe for comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, differentiation, and β-catenin signaling pathway alterations between the two radiation types using immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. Relative to controls and γ-ray, intestinal tumor frequency and grade was significantly higher after 56Fe radiation. Additionally, tumor incidence per unit of radiation (per cGy) was also higher after 56Fe radiation relative to γ radiation. Staining for phospho-histone H3, indicative of IEC proliferation, was more and alcian blue staining, indicative of IEC differentiation, was less in 56Fe than γ irradiated samples. Activation of β-catenin was more in 56Fe-irradiated tumor-free and tumor-bearing areas of the intestinal tissues. When considered along with higher levels of cyclin D1, we infer that relative to γ radiation exposure to 56Fe radiation induced markedly reduced differentiation, and increased proliferative index in IEC resulting in increased intestinal tumors of larger size and grade due to preferentially greater activation of β-catenin and its downstream effectors.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3): e59295(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059295 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Several studies have been conducted to study the effects of low doses ranging from 50 mGy to 100 mGy on miRNAs expression in various cellular models including fibroblasts [17,41], blood cells  or thyroid cells . However, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to address the miRNA response of human cells after a very low dose of 10 mGy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, have recently emerged as potential modulators of cellular response to ionizing radiations both in vitro and in vivo in various cell types and tissues. However, in epidermal cells, the involvement of the miRNA machinery in the cellular response to ionizing radiations remains to be clarified. Indeed, understanding the mechanisms of cutaneous radiosensitivity is an important issue since skin is the most exposed organ to ionizing radiations and among the most sensitive.
We settled up an expression study of miRNAs in primary human skin keratinocytes using a microfluidic system of qPCR assay, which permits to assess the expression of almost 700 annotated miRNAs. The keratinocytes were cultured to a proliferative or a differentiated state mimicking basal or suprabasal layers of human epidermis. These cells were irradiated at 10 mGy or 6 Gy and RNA was extracted 3 hours after irradiation. We found that proliferative cells irradiated at 6 Gy display a global fall of miRNA expression whereas differentiated cells exposed to the same dose display a global increase of miRNAs expression. We identified twenty miRNAs weakly but significantly modulated after 6 Gy irradiation, whereas only 2 miRNAs were modulated after low-dose irradiation in proliferating cells. To go further into the biological meaning of this miRNA response, we over-expressed some of the responding miRNA in proliferating cells: we observed a significant decrease of cell viability 72 hours after irradiation. Functional annotation of their predicted targets revealed that G-protein related pathways might be regulated by these responding miRNAs.
Our results reveal that human primary keratinocytes exposed to ionizing irradiation expressed a miRNA pattern strongly related to the differentiation status of irradiated cells. We also demonstrate that some miRNAs play a role in the radiation response to ensure the short-term survival of irradiated keratinocytes.
"In contrast, expression of whole blood–derived miRNAs was more stable and consistent. Profiles of miRNAs from whole blood have been examined previously [41-43]. Addition of synthetic miRNAs from other organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans in serum may be a useful approach for endogenous control during qRT-PCR. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as the most potent microbial mediator presaging the threat of invasion of Gram-negative bacteria that implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. This study was designed to examine the microRNA (miRNA) expression in whole blood from mice injected with intraperitoneal LPS.
C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of varying concentrations (range, 10-1000 μg) of LPS from different bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Serratia marcescens and were killed 2, 6, 24, and 72 h after LPS injection. Whole blood samples were obtained and tissues, including lung, brain, liver, and spleen, were harvested for miRNA expression analysis using an miRNA array (Phalanx miRNA OneArray® 1.0). Upregulated expression of miRNA targets in the whole blood of C57BL/6 and Tlr4(-/-) mice injected with LPS was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and compared with that in the whole blood of C57BL/6 mice injected with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus.
Following LPS injection, a significant increase of 15 miRNAs was observed in the whole blood. Among them, only 3 miRNAs showed up-regulated expression in the lung, but no miRNAs showed a high expression level in the other examined tissues. Upregulated expression of the miRNA targets (let-7d, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-25, miR-92a, miR-103, miR-107 and miR-451) following LPS injection on real-time RT-PCR was dose- and time-dependent. miRNA induction occurred after 2 h and persisted for at least 6 h. Exposure to LPS from different bacteria did not induce significantly different expression of these miRNA targets. Additionally, significantly lower expression levels of let-7d, miR-25, miR-92a, miR-103, and miR-107 were observed in whole blood of Tlr4(-/-) mice. In contrast, LTA exposure induced moderate expression of miR-451 but not of the other 7 miRNA targets.
We identified a specific whole blood-derived miRNA signature in mice exposed to LPS, but not to LTA, from different gram-negative bacteria. These whole blood-derived miRNAs are promising as biomarkers for LPS exposure.
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