Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239Deltanef vaccination elicits different Tat28-35SL8-specific CD8+ T-cell clonotypes compared to a DNA prime/adenovirus type 5 boost regimen in rhesus macaques.

Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 03/2011; 85(7):3683-9. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02112-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine vectors expressing the same viral antigens can elicit disparate T-cell responses. Within this spectrum, replicating variable vaccines, like SIVmac239Δnef, appear to generate particularly efficacious CD8(+) T-cell responses. Here, we sequenced T-cell receptor β-chain (TRB) gene rearrangements from immunodominant Mamu-A 01-restricted Tat(28-35)SL8-specific CD8(+) T-cell populations together with the corresponding viral epitope in four rhesus macaques during acute SIVmac239Δnef infection. Ultradeep pyrosequencing showed that viral variants arose with identical kinetics in SIVmac239Δnef and pathogenic SIVmac239 infection. Furthermore, distinct Tat(28-35)SL8-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires were elicited by SIVmac239Δnef compared to those observed following a DNA/Ad5 prime-boost regimen, likely reflecting differences in antigen sequence stability.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The onset of protective immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in SIVΔnef-vaccinated macaques is delayed for 15-20 weeks, a process that is related to qualitative changes in CD8+ T cell responses induced by SIVΔnef. As a novel approach to characterize cell differentiation following vaccination, we used multi-target qPCR to measure transcription factor expression in naïve and memory subsets of CD8++ T cells, and in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells obtained from SIVΔnef-vaccinated or wild type SIVmac239-infected macaques. Unsupervised clustering of expression profiles organized naïve and memory CD8+ T cells into groups concordant with cell surface phenotype. Transcription factor expression patterns in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in SIVΔnef-vaccinated animals were distinct from those observed in purified CD8+ T cell subsets obtained from naïve animals, and were intermediate to expression profiles of purified central memory and effector memory T cells. Expression of transcription factors elicited by SIVΔnef vaccination also varied over time: cells obtained at later time points, temporally associated with greater protection, appeared more central-memory like than cells obtained at earlier time points, which appeared more effector memory-like. Expression of transcription factors associated with effector differentiation, such as ID2 and RUNX3, were decreased over time, while expression of transcription factors associated with quiescence or memory differentiation, such as TCF7, BCOR and EOMES, increased. CD8+ T cells specific for a more conserved epitope expressed higher levels of TBX21 and BATF, and appeared more effector-like than cells specific for an escaped epitope, consistent with continued activation by replicating vaccine virus. These data suggest transcription factor expression profiling is a novel method that can provide additional data complementary to the analysis of memory cell differentiation based on classical phenotypic markers. Additionally, these data support the hypothesis that ongoing stimulation by SIVΔnef promotes a distinct protective balance of CD8+ T cell differentiation and activation states.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2015; 11(3):e1004740. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004740 · 8.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The overall CD8 T cell response to human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) targets a collection of discrete epitope specificities. Some of these epitope-specific CD8 T cells emerge in the weeks and months following infection and rapidly select for sequence variants, whereas other CD8 T cell responses develop during chronic infection and rarely select for sequence variants. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acute CD8 T cell responses that do not rapidly select for escape variants are unable to control viral replication in vivo as well as those that do rapidly select for escape variants. We created a derivative of the live attenuated SIV (SIVmac239Δnef) in which we ablated five epitopes that elicit early CD8 T cell responses and rapidly accumulate sequence variants in SIVmac239-infected Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) who are homozygous for the M3 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype. This live attenuated SIV variant was called m3KOΔnef. Viremia was significantly higher in M3 homozygous MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef when compared to either MHC-mismatched MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef or MCMs infected with SIVmac239Δnef. Three CD8 T cell responses, including two that do not rapidly select for escape variants, predominated during early m3KOΔnef infection in the M3 homozygous MCMs, but these animals were unable to control viral replication. These results provide evidence that acute CD8 T cell responses that have the potential to rapidly select for escape variants in the early phase of infection are needed to establish viral control in vivo.
    Journal of Virology 06/2013; 87(16). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00909-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (LASIV) vaccine SIVΔnef is one of the most effective vaccines in inducing protection against wild-type lentiviral challenge, yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying its remarkable protective efficacy. Here, we exploit deep sequencing technology and comprehensive CD8 T cell epitope mapping to deconstruct the CD8 T cell response, to identify the regions of immune pressure and viral escape, and to delineate the effect of epitope escape on the evolution of the CD8 T cell response in SIVΔnef-vaccinated animals. We demonstrate that the initial CD8 T cell response in the acute phase of SIVΔnef infection is mounted predominantly against more variable epitopes, followed by widespread sequence evolution and viral escape. Furthermore, we show that epitope escape expands the CD8 T cell repertoire that targets highly conserved epitopes, defined as anentropic specificity, and generates de novo responses to the escaped epitope variants during the vaccination period. These results correlate SIVΔnef-induced protection with expanded anentropic specificity and increased response depth. Importantly, these findings render SIVΔnef, long the gold standard in HIV/SIV vaccine research, as a proof-of-concept vaccine that highlights the significance of the twin principles of anentropic specificity and repertoire depth in successful vaccine design.
    PLoS Pathogens 02/2015; 11(2):e1004633. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004633 · 8.06 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014