To assess the reliability and validity of the Sub-health Measurement Scale Version 1.0 (SHMS V1.0).
A spot trial sampling of 2000 individuals was conducted to study the test-retest reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, contract validity, content validity and criterion-related validity of SHMS V1.0.
The spot trial results indicated a test-retest reliability of SHMS V1.0 of 0.644 (P<0.001) with a Cronbach α coefficient of 0.917 and a split-half reliability of 0.831. The results showed a close correlation between each item of SHMS V1.0 and its dimension, but a low correlation between a particular item and other dimensions. The dimension score was significantly correlated to its subscale scores, but not to other subscale scores. The results of factor analysis matched the theoretical conception of SHMS V1.0. The correlation coefficient between SHMS V1.0 and SF-36 was 0.664 (P<0.001).
SHMS V1.0 has a good reliability and validity, and is a reliable and valid measurement scale for sub-health evaluation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Suboptimal health status (SHS) is considered to be an intermediate status between disease and health, and is characterised by a decline in vitality, in physiological function and in the capacity for adaptation. Although the incidence of SHS is high, the underlying causes remain unclear. Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health status; however, the relationship between SHS and lifestyle has not been elucidated.
Design Cross-sectional survey.
Setting A questionnaire, based on ‘Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II)’ and ‘Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0)’, was sent to four colleges in four districts (Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhanjiang and Shaoguan) of China between May and July 2013.
Participants A total of 12 429 questionnaires were distributed during the study period, and 11 144 completed responses were received.
Results The prevalence rates for the ‘healthy’, ‘SHS’ and ‘disease’ groups of respondents (students) were 22.81% (2542), 55.9% (6234) and 21.25% (2368), respectively. Most of the students reported a ‘moderate’ or ‘good’ lifestyle. There were significant differences in lifestyle and health status between the two genders. It was notable that health status was significantly positively correlated with lifestyle (r=0.563). For every dimension of the HPLP-II model, the mean values were lower for those participants who reported as ‘SHS’ or ‘disease’ than for those who reported that they were ‘healthy’. The individual dimensions of the HPLP-II model, including ‘spiritual growth’, ‘health responsibility’, ‘physical activity’, ‘interpersonal relations’ and ‘stress management’ were all related to SHS.
Conclusions Health status is significantly positively correlated with lifestyle. Poor lifestyle is a risk factor for SHS. Conversely, adopting a healthier lifestyle can improve SHS.
Trial registration number ChiCTR-OCH-12002317.
BMJ Open 06/2014; 4(6):e005156. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005156 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous studies have presented evidence of associations between failure to consume breakfast and increased diseases. Accordingly, in view of the significance of breakfast eating behaviors with respect to health status, the associations between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle, SHS require further elucidation.MethodsA cross-sectional survey was conducted within a clustered sample of 24,159 individuals aged 12¿80 years in 2012¿13 within the population of Southern China. Breakfast eating habits were categorically defined by consumption frequency (`scarcely, sometimes or always¿). Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP-II). SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). ResultsOf the 24,159 participants, the prevalence rates for the `health¿, `SHS¿, and `disease¿ were 18.8%, 46.0%, and 35.2%, respectively. Overall, 19.6% of participants reported `scarce¿ breakfast eating habits, with frequent breakfast eaters scoring higher on both HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0. After demographic adjustment, regression analyses revealed a significant association between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle (p <0.001). There were lower levels of breakfast consumption regularity amongst individuals with SHS than those with disease. Categorically `scarce¿ breakfast eaters were approximately three times more likely to be assigned SHS (OR: 2.745, 95% CI: 2.468-3.053), while infrequent breakfast eaters (`sometimes¿) were just less than twice as likely to be assessed as being of SHS (OR: 1.731, 95% CI: 1.595-1.879).Conclusions
Breakfast eating habits are significantly associated with a healthy lifestyle, and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Irregular breakfast eating habits are related to an increased risk of SHS; increased breakfast eating frequency may contribute to lowering the prevalence of SHS in Southern China.
Journal of Translational Medicine 12/2014; 12(1):348. DOI:10.1186/s12967-014-0348-1 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL).
We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.
Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37).
Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117940. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117940 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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