The glutathione transferase inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol (NBDHEX) increases temozolomide efficacy against malignant melanoma.
ABSTRACT First line treatment of metastatic melanoma includes the methylating agent dacarbazine or its analogue temozolomide (TMZ) with improved pharmacokinetics and tolerability. However, the prognosis of the metastatic disease is poor and several trials are evaluating TMZ in polychemotherapy protocols. The novel glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol (NBDHEX) has recently shown activity against melanoma through c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. In this study we have investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NBDHEX and TMZ combination against melanoma. The results indicated that NBDHEX and TMZ exerted in vitro synergistic anti-proliferative effects in murine B16 and human A375 melanoma cells. In B16 cells TMZ as single agent caused cell accumulation at the G(2)/M phase of cell cycle, whereas NBDHEX induced mainly apoptotic effects. NBDHEX provoked a higher level of p53 phosphorylation with respect to TMZ and the drug combination caused a more than additive increase of p53 activation. The in vivo efficacy of NBDHEX and TMZ has been investigated in an orthotopic B16 model. Treatment with NBDHEX provoked a reduction of tumour growth comparable to that obtained with TMZ, whereas the drug combination significantly increased tumour growth inhibition with respect to the single agents, without worsening TMZ myelotoxicity. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumour grafts revealed a profound reduction of Cyclin D1 and CD31 in all treatment groups; VEGF expression was, instead, markedly decreased only in NBDHEX or NBDHEX and TMZ treated samples. These findings indicate that NBDHEX represents a good candidate for combination therapies including TMZ, offering new perspectives for the treatment of melanoma.
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ABSTRACT: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma is a poorly responsive tumor known to overexpress the phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which catalyzes the conjugation between GSH and platinum(II)-containing drugs. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of the strong glutathione S-transferase inhibitor NBDHEX, on human mesothelioma cell lines (MSTO-211H, MPP89, MM-B1 and Mero 48a) featuring the most common mesothelioma phenotypes: epithelioid and biphasic. Even though a different response to NBDHEX was observed, the molecule was very effective on all cell lines tested triggering the sustained activation of both JNK and p38, followed by caspase activation and apoptosis. NBDHEX also caused a severe oxidative stress in the MPP89 cells and to a lesser extent in the MMB1 cells, while it did not cause a significant redox imbalance in the other cell lines. The efficacy of the drug resulted comparable or even higher than cisplatin. Moreover, it showed synergistic or additive effects when used in combination with cisplatin. In conclusion, NBDHEX was effective on mesothelioma cell lines, with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range (IC(50) between 1 and 4 μM). These findings indicate that NBDHEX, alone or in combination with cisplatin, might be a promising new strategy for treating this rare and aggressive malignancy.Cancer Science 11/2012; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and, if spread outside the epidermis, has a dismal prognosis. Before the approval of the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody ipilimumab and the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, no other agents had demonstrated better results in terms of overall survival than the DNA-methylating compound dacarbazine (or its oral analog temozolomide). However, most patients with metastatic melanoma do not obtain long-lasting clinical benefit from ipilimumab and responses to BRAF inhibitors are short lived. Thus, combination therapies with inhibitors of DNA repair (e.g., poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] inhibitors), novel immunomodulators (monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-1 [PD-1] or its ligand PD-L1), targeted therapies (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] kinase [MEK] or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibitors) or antiangiogenic agents are currently being investigated to improve the efficacy of antimelanoma therapies. This review discusses the implications of simultaneously targeting key regulators of melanoma cell proliferation/survival and immune responses to counteract resistance.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 11/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate anti-proliferatory activity of a selected N,N-[(8-hydroxyquinoline)methyl]-substituted benzylamine (JLK1486) on melanoma cells and to characterize its mechanism of cell population growth inhibition.Cell Proliferation 08/2014; · 2.27 Impact Factor