The emerging role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in UPR regulation.
ABSTRACT Although the function of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have primarily been associated with influencing transcription through chromatin remodeling, the capacity of these enzymes to interface with a diverse array of biologic processes by modulating a growing list of nonhistone substrates has gained recent attention. Recent investigations have demonstrated the potential of HDACs to directly regulate the unfolded protein response (UPR) through acetylation of its central regulatory protein, Grp78. Further, this appears to be an important mechanism underlying the anti-tumor activity of HDAC inhibitors. Herein, we provide a summary of the literature supporting the role HDACs play in regulating the UPR and a detailed description of methods to allow for the study of both acetylation of nonhistone proteins and UPR pathway activation following HDAC inhibition.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Multiple myeloma (MM) is still a fatal plasma cell cancer. Novel compounds are currently clinically tested as a single agent in relapsing patients, but in best cases with partial response of a fraction of patients, emphasising the need to design tools predicting drug efficacy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are anticancer agents targeting epigenetic regulation of gene expression and are in clinical development in MM.Methods:To create a score predicting HDACi efficacy, five MM cell lines were treated with trichostatin A (TSA) and gene expression profiles were determined.Results:The expression of 95 genes was found to be upregulated by TSA, using paired supervised analysis with Significance Analysis of Microarrays software. Thirty-seven of these 95 genes had prognostic value for overall survival in a cohort of 206 newly diagnosed MM patients and their prognostic information was summed up in a histone acetylation score (HA Score); patients with the highest HA Score had the shorter overall survival. It is worth noting that MM cell lines or patients' primary MM cells with a high HA Score had a significant higher sensitivity to TSA, valproic acid, panobinostat or vorinostat.Conclusion:In conclusion, the HA Score allows identification of MM patients with poor survival, who could benefit from HDACi treatment.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 18 July 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.392 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor