Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung
ABSTRACT Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay.
Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic.
VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the actions of VEGFA, depending on their relative concentrations, which change in the hypoxic lung. Thus their actions in vivo depend on their specific concentrations within the microenvironment of the alveolar wall during the course of adaptation to pulmonary hypoxia.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to abnormal pulmonary vascular development is an important determinant of illness severity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and placental growth factor (PLGF) may be important mediators of pulmonary vascular development in health and disease. This prospective study investigated the relationship between plasma VEGFA and PLGF and measures of pulmonary artery pressure, oxygenation and cardiac function and in CDH. A cohort of ten infants with CDH consecutively admitted to a surgical neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was recruited. Eighty serial plasma samples were obtained and analyzed by multiplex immunoassay to quantify VEGFA and PLGF. Concurrent assessment of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac function were made by echocardiography. Plasma VEGFA was higher and PLGF was lower in CDH compared to existing normative data. Combined plasma VEGFA:PLGF ratio correlated positively with measures of PAP, diastolic ventricular dysfunction and oxygenation index. Non-survivors had higher VEGFA:PLGF ratio than survivors at day 3-4 of life and in the second week week of life. These findings suggest that increased plasma VEGFA and reduced PLGF correlate with clinical severity of pulmonary vascular disease and may be associated with adverse outcome in CDH. This potential role for combined plasma VEGFA and PLGF in CDH as disease biomarkers, pathogenic mediators and therapeutic targets merits further investigation. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2014; 308(4):ajplung.00261.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00261.2014 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia plays a significant role in tumor progression and aggressiveness and implicated in resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This study aims to characterize the changes in gene expression associated with chronic hypoxia in MCF7 breast cancer cell line and identify a possible biomarker for hypoxia in breast cancer. Breast cancer cells (MCF7) were exposed to 8-hour hypoxic episodes (<1% oxygen) three times a week for a total of 38 episodes. Gene expression changes were profiled using RT- PCR array after 19 and 38 episodes of hypoxia and compared to normoxic cells. Chemoresistance of hypoxic cells toward doxorubicin was assessed using MTT cell proliferation assay. Marked gene expression changes were indentified after 19 and 38 episodes of hypoxia. Only few changes were common in both stages with most genes rebounding at the level of 38 episodes. A notable gene (HNF4A) has been up-regulated by 2 folds after 19 hypoxic shots and further up-regulated by 6.43 folds after 38 hypoxic shots. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of doxorubicin in MCF7 cells has increased in a trend proportional to the number of hypoxic episodes then totally rebounded after incubation under normoxia for 3weeks. This study provides evidence that exposing cells to prolonged periods of hypoxia (weeks) results in different expression changes than those induced by short-term hypoxia (less than 72h). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Genomics 10/2014; 104(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.10.010 · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis by enabling cancer cells to depart from the primary tumor, invade surrounding tissue and disseminate to distant organs. The existence and function of EMT in cervical cancer is poorly understood. Placental growth factor (PLGF) has been shown to associate with EMT in various cancers. However, whether PLGF is involved in EMT in cervical cancer remains unclear. Thus the present study examined the relationship between PLGF expression and EMT-related proteins in 110 cervical lesions samples. We detected that PLGF was expressed in 61.8% cervical lesion sections. In addition, PLGF expression is positively correlated with low expression level of E-cadherin and high expression level of vimentin. Serum samples and cervical lavage samples were collected from patients with pre-invasive and invasive lesion of uterine cervix or normal control group, the PLGF levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that a significantly high level of PLGF could be detected both in serum and vaginal lavage compared with normal women group, and there is no significant difference between serum and lavage in PLGF level. In addition, whatever in lavage or in serum, the PLGF level in stage I and II was significantly higher than it in CINIII or cancer in situ. However, there is no significant difference between the stage I and stage II; we also found that exogenous PLGF promotes molecular changes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in siha cells. In addition, application of a specific EKR1/2 inhibitor could reverse the effects of PLGF. These findings suggested that PLGF could regulate the expression of EMT-related proteins and promote migration of siha cells through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Therapies that targets PLGF/Flt-1/ERK/MAPK signaling pathway may be beneficial in treatment of cervical cancer.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2014; 7(12):8506-19. · 1.78 Impact Factor