Denitrification in Gram-positive bacteria: an underexplored trait.
ABSTRACT Denitrifying organisms are essential in removing fixed nitrogen pollutants from ecosystems (e.g. sewage sludge). They can be detrimental (e.g. for agricultural soil) and can also produce the greenhouse gas N2O (nitrous oxide). Therefore a more comprehensive understanding of this process has become increasingly important regarding its global environmental impact. Even though bacterial genome sequencing projects may reveal new data, to date the denitrification abilities and features in Gram-positive bacteria are still poorly studied and understood. The present review evaluates current knowledge on the denitrification trait in Gram-positive bacteria and addresses the likely existence of unknown denitrification genes. In addition, current molecular tools to study denitrification gene diversity in pure cultures and environmental samples seem to be highly biased, and additional novel approaches for the detection of denitrifying (Gram-positive) bacteria appear to be crucial in re-assessing the real diversity of denitrifiers.
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ABSTRACT: Although efforts have been made the past few years, knowledge on genomic and phenotypic diversity and occurrence of the denitrification ability in Gram-positive bacteria is still fragmentary. Many environmental monitoring approaches have used nir, nor and nos genes as marker genes for detection of denitrification or denitrifying bacteria. However, primers used in these methods often fail to detect the genes in specific bacterial taxa, such as Gram-positive denitrifiers. In this study, novel primer sets specifically targeting nirK, qnorB and nosZ genes of the Firmicute genus Geobacillus were developed by genomic mining and tested in parallel with commonly used primers on a set of phylogenetically closely related denitrifying geobacilli. Novel nirK and qnorB sequences were recovered from all strains tested, whereas nosZ was detected in part of the strain set, which was in agreement with phenotypic testing. Inter-species and modest intra-species variations in AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) patterns were observed, verifying presence of genomic variation within the strain set. Our study shows that closely related Gram-positive denitrifiers may differ in denitrification phenotype and genotype. But foremost, novel primers targeting very divergent nirK, qnorB and nosZ gene sequences of Gram-positive denitrifiers, are now available for cultivation-independent environmental surveys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS Microbiology Ecology 05/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The significance of Brevibacillus has been documented scientifically in the published literature and commercially in heterologous recombinant protein catalogs. Brevibacillus is one of the most widespread genera of Gram-positive bacteria, recorded from the diverse environmental habitats. The high growth rate, better transformation efficiency by electroporation, availability of shuttle vectors, production of negligible amount of extracellular protease, and the constitutive expression of heterologous proteins make some strains of this genus excellent laboratory models. Regarding biotechnological applications, this genus continues to be a source of various enzymes of great biotechnological interest due to their ability to biodegrade low density polyethylene, ability to act as a candidate bio-control agent, and more recently acknowledged as a tool for the overexpression. This article reviews the properties of Brevibacillus spp. as better biological tools with varied applications.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor