Several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated during thermal injury, and the p38 MAPK is specifically involved in endothelial cell (EC) actin and myosin rearrangement (stress-fiber formation) with ensuing cellular contraction and enhanced vessel permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-related kinase MAPK by their inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059, respectively, significantly reduces burn serum-induced EC stress-fiber formation, whereas SB203580 also inhibits burn serum-induced EC tight-junction damage and thereby general blood vessel hyperpermeability. The JNK MAPK inhibitor, SP600125, on the contrary, influences neither stress-fiber formation nor EC tight-junction damage. Extracellular signal-related kinase MAPK inhibition significantly decreases burn serum-induced Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) release, whereas SB203580 and SP600125 have only limited such effects. Western blotting, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and confocal laser scanning microscopy proved that SP600125 significantly inhibits burn serum-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, whereas SB203580 depresses the expression of P selectin. In vivo studies, using the dominant negative adenoviral approach of MAPK kinase 3b and MAPK kinase 6b to block p38 MAPKs, and MKK4 and MKK7 to block JNK MAPKs, show that the latter MAPKs are involved in the regulation of P selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, respectively, following thermal injury. Taken together, the results suggest that several MAPKs play important, although different, roles in general EC alterations following burn injuries.
"It has been shown in our previous study that p38 MAPK played a critical role in thermal injury by mediating formation of F-actin stress fiber and redistribution of ZO-1 in HUVECs. ERK1/2 was partially involved in burn serum-induced stress-fiber formation, while JNK had no influence on these endothelial morphological changes after thermal injury . In this study, the results demonstrated that S100A8, S100A9 and S100A8/A9 triggered the phosphorylation of three MAPK subtypes via TLR4 or RAGE, but only p38 and ERK1/2 played a role in modulating S100A8 and/or A9-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A8, S100A9 and S100A8/A9 complexes have been known as important endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) proteins. But the pathophysiological roles of S100A8, S100A9 and S100A8/A9 in cardiovascular diseases are incompletely explained. In this present study, the effects of homo S100A8, S100A9 and their hetero-complex S100A8/A9 on endothelial barrier function were tested respectively in cultured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). The involvement of TLR4 and RAGE were observed by using inhibitor of TLR4 and blocking antibody of RAGE. The clarification of different MAPK subtypes in S100A8/A9-induced endothelial response was implemented by using specific inhibitors. The calcium-dependency was detected in the absence of Ca2+ or in the presence of gradient-dose Ca2+. The results showed that S100A8, S100A9 and S100A8/A9 could induce F-actin and ZO-1 disorganization in HUVECs and evoked the increases of HUVEC monolayer permeability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of S100A8, S100A9 and S100A8/A9 on endothelial barrier function depended on the activation of p38 and ERK1/2 signal pathways through receptors TLR4 and RAGE. Most importantly, we revealed the preference of S100A8 on TLR4 and S100A9 on RAGE in HUVECs. The results also showed the calcium dependency in S100A8- and S100A9-evoked endothelial response, indicating that calcium dependency on formation of S100A8 or A9 dimmers might be the prerequisite for this endothelial functional alteration.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90472. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090472 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h) attenuates inflammatory conditions independent of its antimicrobial effect. This study aimed to observe the effects of DOX-h on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. The endothelial monolayer permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was monitored by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the arrangement of F-actin were detected. The results showed that both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment with DOX-h markedly attenuated the LPS-induced reduction in TEER and the disorganization of F-actin on HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. LPS mediated the phosphorylation of all three MAPKs (p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)), but DOX-h was only able to inhibit the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. The data further suggested that DOX-h alleviated LPS-evoked TEER reduction and F-actin redistribution by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 and its downstream target, heat shock protein (HSP)27. Thus, DOX-h attenuates LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via inhibition of the p38 MAPK-HSP27-F-actin pathway.
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