Copy Number Variations and Clinical Outcome in Atypical Spitz Tumors
ABSTRACT Atypical Spitz tumors (ASTs) are rare spitzoid neoplasms of uncertain biological behavior. Our study was designed to characterize genetic abnormalities that may help to differentiate ASTs from melanoma or Spitz nevi. We examined copy number variation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples using an Agilent 44k array comparative genomic hybridization platform. Sixteen patients with AST (8 with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy, 1 with distant metastasis), 8 patients with Spitz nevi, and 3 patients with melanoma (2 spitzoid, 1 superficial spreading) were evaluated. Chromosomal aberrations were found in 7 of 16 ASTs, 1 with fatal outcome, 2 spitzoid melanomas, and 1 conventional melanoma. We found no difference in chromosomal instability between AST patients with positive and negative sentinel lymph node biopsies. Our patient with widely metastatic AST lacked the most frequent aberrations in melanoma involving chromosomes 6 and 11q that are loci targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes developed to distinguish malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic lesions. The vast majority of chromosomal abnormalities observed in ASTs are not commonly found in melanomas, suggesting that AST may be a distinct clinical entity and raising additional questions regarding their malignant potential, prognosis, and clinical management. The current FISH probes failed to detect 1 spitzoid melanoma, 1 fatal metastatic AST case, and the other chromosomally aberrant ASTs in our series, but detected 1 spitzoid melanoma and 1 conventional melanoma. Thus, a comprehensive, genome-wide approach to chromosomal abnormalities offered greater sensitivity and specificity than current FISH probes in identifying spitzoid lesions of uncertain malignant potential in this series.
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ABSTRACT: Certain subsets of melanocytic neoplasms are difficult to classify because of conflicting histologic features and the existence of a poorly defined intermediate grade of melanocytic tumors. The integration of molecular diagnostic information with a histologic impression may contribute significantly toward improving classification. This review discusses the development of and advances in molecular techniques, including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as diagnostic and prognostic tools for melanocytic neoplasms. Further, we discuss how specific molecular aberrations identified via FISH correlate with certain morphologies in melanocytic neoplasms. We also examine the prognostic value of FISH in intermediate-grade melanocytic tumors, particularly atypical Spitz tumors.Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery 12/2012; 31(4):274-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sder.2012.09.001 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activating kinase fusions have recently been described as early oncogenic events that are mutually exclusive with HRAS and BRAF mutations in Spitz tumors. Here, we report a series of 32 Spitz tumors with ALK fusions (6 Spitz nevi, 22 atypical Spitz tumors, and 4 spitzoid melanomas) in patients ranging from 5 months to 64 years (median=12 y) of age. The tumors typically presented as exophytic papules on the extremities and were occasionally darkly pigmented. In addition to ALK fusions previously described in other tumor types (NPM1-ALK, TPR-ALK), we identified 2 novel ALK fusions (CLIP1-ALK and GTF3C2-ALK) in our cohort of Spitz tumors. Array comparative genomic hybridization of 19 of these tumors demonstrated a high frequency of chromosome 2 aberrations (where ALK resides, 63%) and chromosome 1p loss in 37% of the cases. Spitz tumors with ALK fusions demonstrated unique histopathologic features. Clefts and small vesicle-like spaces were arrayed between plump spindled melanocytes with fibrillar cytoplasm and enlarged nuclei. These melanocytes were typically arrayed in elongated and fusiform nests with radial orientation. The tumors often had extension into the dermis or subcutis with a wedge-shaped or bulbous lower border (45% and 17%, respectively). An infiltrative growth pattern was often present at the periphery of the tumor and was highlighted by ALK immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, Spitz tumors with ALK rearrangement show distinct histopathologic features that should aid in improving classification of these diagnostically challenging tumors.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 01/2015; 39(5). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000387 · 4.59 Impact Factor
- Current Problems in Surgery 12/2014; 51(12):478-520. DOI:10.1067/j.cpsurg.2014.11.004 · 1.42 Impact Factor