Gyrification and neural connectivity in schizophrenia

Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/2011; 23(1):339-52. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579410000842
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is emerging evidence for a connection between the surface morphology of the brain and its underlying connectivity. The foundation for this relationship is thought to be established during brain development through the shaping influences of tension exerted by viscoelastic nerve fibers. The tension-based morphogenesis results in compact wiring that enhances efficient neural processing. Individuals with schizophrenia present with multiple symptoms that can include impaired thought, action, perception, and cognition. The global nature of these symptoms has led researchers to explore a more global disruption of neuronal connectivity as a theory to explain the vast array of clinical and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. If cerebral function and form are linked through the organization of neural connectivity, then a disruption in neural connectivity may also alter the surface morphology of the brain. This paper reviews developmental theories of gyrification and the potential interaction between gyrification and neuronal connectivity. Studies of gyrification abnormalities in children, adolescents, and adults with schizophrenia demonstrate a relationship between disrupted function and altered morphology in the surface patterns of the cerebral cortex. This altered form may provide helpful clues in understanding the neurobiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

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Available from: Claus C Hilgetag, Jul 31, 2015
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    • "However, empirical experience to date suggests that volumetry on its own may be insufficient to generate useful endophenotypes in part because of the regional inconsistency of observed effects. Cortical surface measures (including cortical thickness, cortical surface area and, indirectly, TA) are now generally regarded as a more proximate index of neurodevelopmental deviations in cytoarchitectural organization (Fischl and Dale, 2000; Mangin et al., 2010) and associated structural connectivity (White and Hilgetag, 2011). In patients with schizophrenia, when compared with healthy controls, prefrontal and temporal cortices show reductions in cortical thickness and surface area, with relative sparing of more posterior regions (Kuperberg et al., 2003; Rimol et al., 2010; Nesvag et al., 2008; Kubota et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental processes are widely believed to underlie schizophrenia. Analysis of brain texture from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect disturbance in brain cytoarchitecture. We tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia manifest quantitative differences in brain texture that, alongside discrete volumetric changes, may serve as an endophenotypic biomarker. Texture analysis (TA) of grey matter distribution and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of regional brain volumes were applied to MRI scans of 27 patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls. Texture parameters (uniformity and entropy) were also used as covariates in VBM analyses to test for correspondence with regional brain volume. Linear discriminant analysis tested if texture and volumetric data predicted diagnostic group membership (schizophrenia or control). We found that uniformity and entropy of grey matter differed significantly between individuals with schizophrenia and controls at the fine spatial scale (filter width below 2 mm). Within the schizophrenia group, these texture parameters correlated with volumes of the left hippocampus, right amygdala and cerebellum. The best predictor of diagnostic group membership was the combination of fine texture heterogeneity and left hippocampal size. This study highlights the presence of distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia, and their relation to focal structural abnormality of the hippocampus. The conjunction of these features has potential as a neuroimaging endophenotype of schizophrenia.
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    • "Further, the longitudinal trajectory of regional gyrification deviates from that of agematched peers without schizophrenia (Palaniyappan et al. 2013a). This suggests that the cross-sectional observations of altered regional gyrification in schizophrenia can be linked to maturational disturbances (White and Hilgetag 2011). "
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    • "The overlap of the mentioned neuropathological post mortem and in vivo brain imaging studies, therefore, underline the hypothesis that imaging markers of cortical complexity might provide information related to disturbed brain development and the emergence of cortical folding. Such structural effects on cortical folding might then relate to functional pathologies of connectivity [White and Hilgetag, 2011]. Also, recent findings suggest a genetic impact on (frontal) gyrification in families affected with schizophrenia [Falkai et al., 2007]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is assumed to be a neurodevelopmental disorder, which might involve disturbed development of the cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and medial temporal areas. Based on a novel spherical harmonics approach to measuring complexity of cortical folding, we applied a measure based on fractal dimension (FD) to investigate the heterogeneity of regional cortical surface abnormalities across subgroups of schizophrenia defined by symptom profiles. A sample of 87 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia was divided into three subgroups (based on symptom profiles) with predominantly negative (n = 31), disorganized (n = 23), and paranoid (n = 33) symptoms and each compared to 108 matched healthy controls. While global FD measures were reduced in the right hemisphere of the negative and paranoid subgroups, regional analysis revealed marked heterogeneity of regional FD alterations. The negative subgroup showed most prominent reductions in left anterior cingulate, superior frontal, frontopolar, as well as right superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. The disorganized subgroup showed reductions in bilateral ventrolateral/orbitofrontal cortices, and several increases in the left hemisphere, including inferior parietal, middle temporal, and midcingulate areas. The paranoid subgroup showed only few changes, including decreases in the right superior parietal and left fusiform region, and increase in the left posterior cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest regional heterogeneity of cortical folding complexity, which might be related to biological subgroups of schizophrenia with differing degrees of altered cortical developmental pathology. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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