Gyrification and neural connectivity in schizophrenia

Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/2011; 23(1):339-52. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579410000842
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is emerging evidence for a connection between the surface morphology of the brain and its underlying connectivity. The foundation for this relationship is thought to be established during brain development through the shaping influences of tension exerted by viscoelastic nerve fibers. The tension-based morphogenesis results in compact wiring that enhances efficient neural processing. Individuals with schizophrenia present with multiple symptoms that can include impaired thought, action, perception, and cognition. The global nature of these symptoms has led researchers to explore a more global disruption of neuronal connectivity as a theory to explain the vast array of clinical and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. If cerebral function and form are linked through the organization of neural connectivity, then a disruption in neural connectivity may also alter the surface morphology of the brain. This paper reviews developmental theories of gyrification and the potential interaction between gyrification and neuronal connectivity. Studies of gyrification abnormalities in children, adolescents, and adults with schizophrenia demonstrate a relationship between disrupted function and altered morphology in the surface patterns of the cerebral cortex. This altered form may provide helpful clues in understanding the neurobiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

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    • "The relevance of this structural alteration is underlined by reduced subcortical metabolism within this group and its equal proportion within FE and chronic patients. An alteration in cortical gyrification in schizophrenia may reflect neurodevelopmentallydetermined disturbed connectivity (White and Hilgetag, 2011), in particular , short-range connectivity secondary to under-developed expansion of upper cortical layers (Ronan et al., 2012). This may warrant the interest of assessing cortical folding in relation to measures of functional connectivity found to be altered in schizophrenia (Fornito et al., 2012). "
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 07/2015; 64:79-86. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    • "However, empirical experience to date suggests that volumetry on its own may be insufficient to generate useful endophenotypes in part because of the regional inconsistency of observed effects. Cortical surface measures (including cortical thickness, cortical surface area and, indirectly, TA) are now generally regarded as a more proximate index of neurodevelopmental deviations in cytoarchitectural organization (Fischl and Dale, 2000; Mangin et al., 2010) and associated structural connectivity (White and Hilgetag, 2011). In patients with schizophrenia, when compared with healthy controls, prefrontal and temporal cortices show reductions in cortical thickness and surface area, with relative sparing of more posterior regions (Kuperberg et al., 2003; Rimol et al., 2010; Nesvag et al., 2008; Kubota et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental processes are widely believed to underlie schizophrenia. Analysis of brain texture from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect disturbance in brain cytoarchitecture. We tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia manifest quantitative differences in brain texture that, alongside discrete volumetric changes, may serve as an endophenotypic biomarker. Texture analysis (TA) of grey matter distribution and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of regional brain volumes were applied to MRI scans of 27 patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls. Texture parameters (uniformity and entropy) were also used as covariates in VBM analyses to test for correspondence with regional brain volume. Linear discriminant analysis tested if texture and volumetric data predicted diagnostic group membership (schizophrenia or control). We found that uniformity and entropy of grey matter differed significantly between individuals with schizophrenia and controls at the fine spatial scale (filter width below 2 mm). Within the schizophrenia group, these texture parameters correlated with volumes of the left hippocampus, right amygdala and cerebellum. The best predictor of diagnostic group membership was the combination of fine texture heterogeneity and left hippocampal size. This study highlights the presence of distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia, and their relation to focal structural abnormality of the hippocampus. The conjunction of these features has potential as a neuroimaging endophenotype of schizophrenia.
    Psychiatry Research : Neuroimaging 09/2014; 223(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.014 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "Further, the longitudinal trajectory of regional gyrification deviates from that of agematched peers without schizophrenia (Palaniyappan et al. 2013a). This suggests that the cross-sectional observations of altered regional gyrification in schizophrenia can be linked to maturational disturbances (White and Hilgetag 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.
    Brain Structure and Function 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0772-2 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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