Article

Gyrification and neural connectivity in schizophrenia

Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/2011; 23(1):339-52. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579410000842
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is emerging evidence for a connection between the surface morphology of the brain and its underlying connectivity. The foundation for this relationship is thought to be established during brain development through the shaping influences of tension exerted by viscoelastic nerve fibers. The tension-based morphogenesis results in compact wiring that enhances efficient neural processing. Individuals with schizophrenia present with multiple symptoms that can include impaired thought, action, perception, and cognition. The global nature of these symptoms has led researchers to explore a more global disruption of neuronal connectivity as a theory to explain the vast array of clinical and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. If cerebral function and form are linked through the organization of neural connectivity, then a disruption in neural connectivity may also alter the surface morphology of the brain. This paper reviews developmental theories of gyrification and the potential interaction between gyrification and neuronal connectivity. Studies of gyrification abnormalities in children, adolescents, and adults with schizophrenia demonstrate a relationship between disrupted function and altered morphology in the surface patterns of the cerebral cortex. This altered form may provide helpful clues in understanding the neurobiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

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Available from: Claus C Hilgetag, Jul 31, 2015
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    • "However, empirical experience to date suggests that volumetry on its own may be insufficient to generate useful endophenotypes in part because of the regional inconsistency of observed effects. Cortical surface measures (including cortical thickness, cortical surface area and, indirectly, TA) are now generally regarded as a more proximate index of neurodevelopmental deviations in cytoarchitectural organization (Fischl and Dale, 2000; Mangin et al., 2010) and associated structural connectivity (White and Hilgetag, 2011). In patients with schizophrenia, when compared with healthy controls, prefrontal and temporal cortices show reductions in cortical thickness and surface area, with relative sparing of more posterior regions (Kuperberg et al., 2003; Rimol et al., 2010; Nesvag et al., 2008; Kubota et al., 2011). "
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    • "Further, the longitudinal trajectory of regional gyrification deviates from that of agematched peers without schizophrenia (Palaniyappan et al. 2013a). This suggests that the cross-sectional observations of altered regional gyrification in schizophrenia can be linked to maturational disturbances (White and Hilgetag 2011). "
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    • "The overlap of the mentioned neuropathological post mortem and in vivo brain imaging studies, therefore, underline the hypothesis that imaging markers of cortical complexity might provide information related to disturbed brain development and the emergence of cortical folding. Such structural effects on cortical folding might then relate to functional pathologies of connectivity [White and Hilgetag, 2011]. Also, recent findings suggest a genetic impact on (frontal) gyrification in families affected with schizophrenia [Falkai et al., 2007]. "
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