Involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.66). 04/2011; 38(4):921-31. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.917
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The high frequencies of recurrence and distant metastasis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) are significant obstacles for the long-term cure of patients with AdCC and emphasize the need for better understanding of the biological factors associated with these outcomes. To identify proteins that mediate AdCC metastasis, we established three AdCC cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the ACCS cell line using orthotopic transplantation and in vivo selection in nude mice: Parental ACCS-GFP, highly tumorigenic ACCS-T GFP and metastatic ACCS-M GFP. ACCS-GFP and ACCS-M GFP were subjected to DNA microarray analysis and the results were used for data mining studies. DNA microarray analysis revealed significantly altered biological processes in the ACC-M GFP cells, including events related to cell adhesion (three categories) and signaling (three categories). In particular, a significant down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins and integrin subunits was observed. The loss of E-cadherin and integrins and the gain of vimentin in ACCS-M GFP cells were confirmed by immunoblotting. These results suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a putative event in AdCC metastasis that induces tumor cell dissemination from the primary tumor site. In summary, in this study we established a useful nude mouse metastasis model which will enable further AdCC metastasis research and clinical treatment trials and we also provide evidence that EMT is significantly involved in the AdCC metastatic process.

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    ABSTRACT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we reported that the T-box transcription factor Brachyury is a potential regulator of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Specifically, growth of CSCs was found to be controlled by Brachyury knockdown in AdCC. Since CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, this finding provides a new principle for therapies targeting CSCs. In the present study, we established that Brachyury knockdown suppresses chemoresistance and radioresistance in vitro. Brachyury was knocked down by transfecting Brachyury short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into the AdCC CSC cell line ACCS-M GFP. Brachyury knockdown significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion and suppressed chemoresistance. A quantitative PCR array of drug transporter genes revealed that knockdown of Brachyury caused down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes. Furthermore, ACCS-M GFP radioresistance was significantly suppressed by Brachyury knockdown. Knockdown of Brachyury significantly sensitized ACCS-M GFP cells to chemoradiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Brachyury knockdown reduces invasiveness and chemoresistance and radioresistance of CSCs in vivo. Therefore, Brachyury knockdown may be a useful therapeutic tool for sensitizing CSCs to conventional chemoradiotherapy.
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor derived from salivary glands and tends to invade the surrounding structures including nervous system. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension and propose a novel molecular mechanism of adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. A 29-year-old Japanese male presented with left trigeminal nerve disturbance. Neuroimaging revealed a tumor located at the right middle cranial and infratemporal fossa. The tumor was removed via a subtemporal extradural and infratemporal fossa approach and histologically diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological and operative findings confirmed a perineural spread of the tumor along the mandibular nerve. Immunohistochemical analyses of molecular consequences in this case were performed for better understanding of the biological processes associated with adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. First, the neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, but for vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, suggesting changes in cell phenotype from epithelial to mesenchymal states. Correspondingly, immunoreactivity of transcriptional factors, such as Slug, Twist, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, which are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were observed. Second, elevated expression of EphA2 receptor, not ephrin-A1, was notable in the neoplastic cells, suggesting morphological changes reminiscent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ligand-independent promotion of tumor cell migration and invasion. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural spread and provide the first published evidence that EphA2 expression without ephrin-A1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play important roles in adenoid cystic carcinoma progression.
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor progression is characterized by loss of cell adhesion and increase of invasion and metastasis. E-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule, is frequently downregulated and has been proposed as an important mediator in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumors. In this study, we investigated the expression of E-cadherin and its association with cancer invasion and prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated a statistically significant association between the positive metastasis status with low E-cadherin protein expression in human CCA tissues (P = 0.04). Statistical trends were identified for low E-cadherin level and shorter survival time (P = 0.08). Targeting the E-cadherin expression in CCA cells with siRNA caused upregulation of vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, and disappearance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin adhesion complex from cell membranes. Moreover, migration and invasion abilities of the cells were increased under this condition. These findings suggest that reduction of E-cadherin contributes to CCA progression by attenuating the strength of cellular adhesion, which affects motility as well as regulating the expression of EMT-related genes during CCA invasion and metastasis. Thus, E-cadherin can act as a central modulator of tumor cell phenotype and is a potential metastasis marker in CCA.
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