Presurgical stress management improves postoperative immune function in men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy
ABSTRACT To assess whether stress management (SM) improved immune outcomes in men undergoing surgery for prostate cancer.
A total of 159 men were assigned randomly to a two-session presurgical SM intervention, a two-session supportive attention (SA) group, or a standard care (SC) group. Men in the SM group discussed their concerns about the upcoming surgery and were taught diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery; they had an imaginal exposure to the day of surgery and learned adaptive coping skills. Men in the SA group discussed their concerns about the upcoming surgery and had a semistructured medical interview. Blood samples were collected at baseline (1 month before surgery) and 48 hours after surgery. Measures of mood (Profile of Mood States) were collected at baseline, 1 week pre surgery, and the morning of surgery.
Men in the SM group had significantly higher levels of natural killer cell cytotoxicity (p = .04) and higher levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-12p70, p = .02; IL-1β, p = .02; tumor necrosis factor-α, p = .05) 48 hours post surgery than men in the SA group and higher levels of natural killer cell cytotoxicity (p = 0.02) and IL-1β (p = .05) than men in the SC group. Immune parameters increased for the SM group and decreased or stayed the same for the SA and SC groups. The SM group had significantly lower Profile of Mood States scores than the SC group (p = .006), with no other group differences between SA and SC groups. Changes in mood were not associated with immune outcomes.
The finding that SM leads to decreased presurgical mood-disturbance and increased immune parameters after surgery reveals the potential psychological and biological benefits of presurgical SM.
- SourceAvailable from: Yvonne Nestoriuc
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- "It serves to distinguish specific effects of SEPT from psychological placebo effects . Supportive therapy  as a manualized, non-specific psychological intervention has been previously used in clinical trials . It includes common factors such as elicitation of affect, treatment context, empathy, reflective listening, and feeling understood. "
ABSTRACT: Adjuvant endocrine therapy can improve disease-free survival and time before recurrence in breast cancer patients. However, it is associated with considerable side effects that negatively affect patients' quality of life and cause non-adherence. The recently demonstrated effect of individual expectations on side-effect development suggests that psychological factors play a role in the prevention of side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate cognitive-behavioral side-effect prevention training (SEPT) for breast cancer patients. This article describes the study protocol and applied research methods.Methods/design: In a randomized controlled trial, 184 female breast cancer patients are assigned to receive either SEPT, standard medical care or a manualized supportive therapy at the start of adjuvant endocrine treatment. SEPT consists of three sessions of cognitive-behavioral training including psychoeducation to provide a realistic view of endocrine therapy, imagination-training to integrate positive aspects of medication into daily life, and side-effect management to enhance expectations about coping ability. Side effects three months after the start of endocrine therapy serve as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, coping ability and patients' medication adherence. Patients' expectations (i.e., expectations about side effects, coping ability, treatment and illness) are analyzed as mediators. The optimization of expectations might be a potential pathway in health care to improve patients' quality of life during long-term medication intake. The results will provide implications for a possible integration of evidence-based prevention training into clinical practice.Trial registration: (NCT01741883).BMC Cancer 09/2013; 13(1):426. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-426 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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- "It is important to note that some of the most impressive effects of psychosocial interventions on clinical cancer outcomes in breast cancer have been achieved with very high intensity interventions spanning 12 months of group-based therapeutic contact (Andersen et al., 2008; Spiegel et al., 1989), though work in malignant melanoma has documented effects on clinical outcomes with a much shorter intervention of 6 weeks (Fawzy et al., 1993). It would be critical to see if other brief psychosocial interventions (as few as 2 sessions) that have demonstrated effects on psychological adaptation and biobehavioral indicators (e.g., Cohen et al., 2011) are also associated with positive clinical outcomes over time. "
ABSTRACT: A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatments place demands on psychological adaptation. Behavioral research suggests the importance of cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in facilitating adaptation during active treatment and throughout cancer survivorship, which forms the rationale for the use of many psychosocial interventions in cancer patients. This cancer experience may also affect physiological adaptation systems (e.g., neuroendocrine) in parallel with psychological adaptation changes (negative affect). Changes in adaptation may alter tumor growth-promoting processes (increased angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and inflammation) and tumor defense processes (decreased cellular immunity) relevant for cancer progression and the quality of life of cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that psychosocial intervention can improve psychological and physiological adaptation indicators in cancer patients. However, less is known about whether these interventions can influence tumor activity and tumor growth-promoting processes and whether changes in these processes could explain the psychosocial intervention effects on recurrence and survival documented to date. Documenting that psychosocial interventions can modulate molecular activities (e.g., transcriptional indicators of cell signaling) that govern tumor promoting and tumor defense processes on the one hand, and clinical disease course on the other is a key challenge for biobehavioral oncology research. This mini-review will summarize current knowledge on psychological and physiological adaptation processes affected throughout the stress of the cancer experience, and the effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological adaptation, cancer disease progression, and changes in stress-related biobehavioral processes that may mediate intervention effects on clinical cancer outcomes. Very recent intervention work in breast cancer will be used to illuminate emerging trends in molecular probes of interest in the hope of highlighting future paths that could move the field of biobehavioral oncology intervention research forward.Brain Behavior and Immunity 05/2012; 30. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2012.05.009 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined the associations between religion and spirituality (R/S), presurgical distress, and other psychosocial factors such as engagement coping, avoidant coping, and social support. Participants were 115 men scheduled for surgery for urologic cancer. Before surgery, participants completed scales measuring intrinsic religiosity, organized religious activity, and nonorganized religious activity (IR, ORA, NORA); social support (Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey); and distress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], Perceived Stress Scale [PSS], Brief Symptom Inventory-18 [BSI-18], and Profile of Mood States [POMS]). R/S was positively associated with engagement coping. Social support was positively associated with engagement coping and inversely associated with POMS and PSS scores. Engagement coping was positively associated with IES and BSI scores, and avoidant coping was positively associated with all distress measures. R/S moderated the association between engagement coping and IES scores, such that the association between engagement coping and IES was not significant for men with high R/S scores (greater religious belief). R/S moderated the association between social support and distress; the inverse association between social support and PSS and POMS scores was only significant for men who scored high on R/S. This study replicated findings from previous studies suggesting that engagement and avoidant types of coping can lead to increased distress prior to surgery. Although R/S was associated with engagement coping, it was not associated with any of the distress measures. The finding that R/S moderated the associations between engagement coping and distress and social support and distress suggests that the association between R/S, coping style, social support, and adjustment to stressful life situations is not simplistic, and indirect associations should be explored.Integrative Cancer Therapies 09/2011; 11(3):212-20. DOI:10.1177/1534735411416456 · 2.01 Impact Factor