Recognition of cytoplasmic RNA results in cathepsin-dependent inflammasome activation and apoptosis in human macrophages.
ABSTRACT dsRNA is an important pathogen-associated molecular pattern that is primarily recognized by cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors of the innate-immune system during virus infection. This recognition results in the activation of inflammasome-associated caspase-1 and apoptosis of infected cells. In this study, we used high-throughput proteomics to identify secretome, the global pattern of secreted proteins, in human primary macrophages that had been activated through the cytoplasmic dsRNA-recognition pathway. The secretome analysis revealed cytoplasmic dsRNA-recognition pathway-induced secretion of several exosome-associated proteins, as well as basal and dsRNA-activated secretion of lysosomal protease cathepsins and cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins). Inflammasome activation was almost completely abolished by cathepsin inhibitors in response to dsRNA stimulation, as well as encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Interestingly, Western blot analysis showed that the mature form of cathepsin D, but not cathepsin B, was secreted simultaneously with IL-18 and inflammasome components ASC and caspase-1 in cytoplasmic dsRNA-stimulated cells. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that cathepsin D has a role in inflammasome activation. Caspase-1 activation was followed by proteolytic processing of caspase-3, indicating that inflammasome activation precedes apoptosis in macrophages that had recognized cytoplasmic RNA. Like inflammasome activation, apoptosis triggered by dsRNA stimulation and virus infection was effectively blocked by cathepsin inhibition. In conclusion, our results emphasize the importance of cathepsins in the innate immune response to virus infection.
Article: Inhibition of the de-myelinating properties of Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome lymphocytes by cathepsin D silencing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms relating interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to brain damage have recently been identified in a microarray analysis of cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytes from patients with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). These findings demonstrate that the inhibition of angiogenesis and the activation of neurotoxic lymphocytes are the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the brain damage consequent to elevated interferon-alpha levels. Our previous study demonstrated that cathepsin D, a lysosomal aspartyl endopeptidase, is the primary mediator of the neurotoxicity exerted by AGS lymphocytes. Cathepsin D is a potent pro-apoptotic, neurotoxic, and demyelinating protease if it is not properly inhibited by the activities of leukocystatins. In central nervous system white matter, demyelination results from cathepsin over-expression when not balanced by the expression of its inhibitors. In the present study, we used RNA interference to inhibit cathepsin D expression in AGS lymphocytes with the aim of decreasing the neurotoxicity of these cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from an AGS patient were immortalized and co-cultured with astrocytes in the presence of interferon alpha with or without cathepsin D RNA interference probes. Cathepsin D expression was measured by qPCR, and neurotoxicity was evaluated by microscopy. RNA interference inhibited cathepsin D over-production by 2.6 fold (P<0.01) in AGS lymphocytes cultured in the presence of interferon alpha. AGS lymphocytes treated using RNA interference exhibited a decreased ability to induce neurotoxicity in astrocytes. Such neurotoxicity results in the inhibition of astrocyte growth and the inhibition of the ability of astrocytes to construct web-like aggregates. These results suggest a new strategy for repairing AGS lymphocytes in vitro by inhibiting their ability to induce astrocyte damage and leukodystrophy.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
Article: Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including 'apoptosis', 'necrosis' and 'mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features.Cell death and differentiation 07/2011; 19(1):107-20. · 8.24 Impact Factor