A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in NF- B Inducing Kinase Is Associated with Mortality in Septic Shock

University of British Columbia Critical Care Research Laboratories, Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia V6Z 1Y6, Canada.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 02/2011; 186(4):2321-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1002864
Source: PubMed


We tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes of the NF-κB pathway are associated with altered clinical outcome of septic shock patients. We genotyped 59 SNPs in the NF-κB pathway in a discovery cohort of septic shock patients (St. Paul's Hospital [SPH], N = 589), which identified the C allele of rs7222094 T/C within MAP3K14 (NF-κB inducing kinase; NIK) associated with increased 28-d mortality (uncorrected p = 0.00024, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.014). This result was replicated in a second cohort of septic shock patients (Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial [VASST; N = 616]) in which the CC genotype of rs7222094 was associated with increased 28-d mortality (Cox regression: SPH cohort hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.64; p = 0.002 Caucasian only; and VASST cohort HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.52; p = 0.048 Caucasian only). Patients having the CC genotype of rs7222094 in SPH experienced more renal and hematological dysfunction (p = 0.003 and p = 0.011), while patients of the VASST cohort with the rs7222094 CC genotype showed the same trend toward more renal dysfunction. In lymphoblastoid cell lines, we found the rs7222094 genotype most strongly associated with mRNA expression of CXCL10, a chemokine regulated by NF-κB. Accordingly, we measured CXCL10 protein levels and found that the CC genotype of rs7222094 was associated with significantly lower levels than those of the TT genotype in lymphoblastoid cell lines (p < 0.05) and in septic shock patients (p = 0.017). This suggests that the CC genotype of NIK rs7222094 is associated with increased mortality and organ dysfunction in septic shock patients, perhaps due to altered regulation of NF-κB pathway genes, including CXCL10.

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    • "Furthermore, high CXCL10 concentrations correlate with the development of physiologic dysfunction and death in the CLP model of sepsis [11]. In clinical studies, plasma CXCL10 concentrations are markedly elevated in septic patients and plasma CXCL10 concentrations correlate with the severity of sepsis in humans [4,13,14]. Punyadeera et al.[14] reported that elevated plasma CXCL10 concentrations are predictive of the transition from sepsis to septic shock in critically ill adults. In other studies, elevated plasma CXCL10 concentrations have been shown to be a reliable indicator of sepsis in neonates and infants [15,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The chemokine CXCL10 is produced during infection and inflammation to activate the chemokine receptor CXCR3, an important regulator of lymphocyte trafficking and activation. The goal of this study was to assess the contributions of CXCL10 to the pathogenesis of experimental septic shock in mice. Methods Septic shock was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution and, in some cases, the broad spectrum antibiotic Primaxin. Studies were performed in CXCL10 knockout mice and mice treated with anti-CXCL10 immunoglobulin G (IgG). Endpoints included leukocyte trafficking and activation, core body temperature, plasma cytokine concentrations, bacterial clearance and survival. Results CXCL10 was present at high concentrations in plasma and peritoneal cavity during CLP-induced septic shock. Survival was significantly improved in CXCL10 knockout (CXCL10KO) mice and mice treated with anti-CXCL10 IgG compared to controls. CXCL10KO mice and mice treated with anti-CXCL10 IgG showed attenuated hypothermia, lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inhibitory protein-2 (MIP-2) in plasma and lessened natural killer (NK) cell activation compared to control mice. Compared to control mice, bacterial burden in blood and lungs was lower in CXCL10-deficient mice but not in mice treated with anti-CXCL10 IgG. Treatment of mice with anti-CXCL10 IgG plus fluids and Primaxin at 2 or 6 hours after CLP significantly improved survival compared to mice treated with non-specific IgG under the same conditions. Conclusions CXCL10 plays a role in the pathogenesis of CLP-induced septic shock and could serve as a therapeutic target during the acute phase of septic shock.
    Critical care (London, England) 06/2014; 18(3):R113. DOI:10.1186/cc13902 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "More recently, evidence has emerged that supports a role for CXCR3 activation in the pathogenesis of sepsis. High levels of CXCL10 have been observed in the plasma of septic patients, and plasma CXCL10 concentrations have been shown to parallel the severity of sepsis in humans [12,13]. Punyadeera and colleagues showed that increasing plasma CXCL10 concentrations were predictive of progression from sepsis to septic shock in critically ill patients [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In our previous studies we demonstrated that CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) participates in the regulation of lymphocyte trafficking during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with anti-CXCR3 immunoglobulin (IgG) and antibiotics on outcome during septic shock caused by CLP. Methods C57BL/6J mice were treated with neutralizing IgG against CXCR3 plus Primaxin either 24 hours prior to, 2 hours after or 6 hours after CLP. Control mice received nonspecific IgG plus Primaxin in the same regimen. Survival, core body temperature, bacterial clearance and systemic cytokine production were evaluated. Results Our results show that treatment with anti-CXCR3 IgG plus Primaxin significantly improved survival when administered 24 hours prior to CLP (50% vs. 10%), 2 hours after CLP (55% vs. 10%) or 6 hours after CLP (55% vs. 25%) compared with mice receiving nonspecific IgG plus Primaxin. Treatment with anti-CXCR3 plus Primaxin 24 hours prior to CLP attenuated hypothermia and IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) production but did not alter bacterial clearance. Treatment with anti-CXCR3 IgG and Primaxin 2 hours after CLP did not improve bacterial clearance and systemic cytokine production compared with mice treated with IgG and Primaxin, whereas 6 hours after CLP the bacterial clearance and IL-6 and MIP-2 concentrations, both in plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid, were significantly improved in mice receiving anti-CXCR3 IgG and Primaxin compared with mice that only received nonspecific IgG and Primaxin. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that neutralization of CXCR3 prior to, 2 hours after or 6 hours after the initiation of CLP-induced septic shock improves survival and attenuates CLP-induced inflammation and physiologic dysfunction.
    Critical care (London, England) 09/2012; 16(5):R168. DOI:10.1186/cc11642 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "Such variation may relate to host genotype. Genetic variation in immunity and associated signaling pathways is known to relate to outcomes in major sepsis (Thair et al., 2011), and recent findings suggest a similar pattern in cancer cachexia. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10 genes that are linked to production rates of these cytokines have been associated with the prevalence of cachexia in gastric or pancreatic cancer (Tan and Fearon, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies.
    Cell metabolism 07/2012; 16(2):153-66. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.06.011 · 17.57 Impact Factor
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