Cardiovascular Anomalies in Turner Syndrome: Spectrum, Prevalence, and Cardiac MRI Findings in a Pediatric and Young Adult Population
ABSTRACT Turner syndrome affects one in 2,500 girls and women and is associated with cardiovascular anomalies. Visualizing the descending thoracic aorta in adults with Turner syndrome with echocardiography is difficult. Therefore, cardiac MRI is the preferred imaging modality for surveillance. Our goals were to use cardiac MRI describe the spectrum and frequency of cardiovascular abnormalities and to evaluate aortic dilatation and associated abnormalities in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome.
The cases of 51 patients with Turner syndrome (median age, 18.4 years; range, 6-36 years) were evaluated with cardiac MRI. The characteristics assessed included aortic structure, elongation of the transverse aortic arch, aortic diameter at multiple locations, and coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Additional evaluations were made for presence of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). Associations between the cardiac MRI data and the following factors were assessed: age, karyotype, body surface area, blood pressure, and ventricular sizes and function.
Sixteen patients (31.4%) had elongation of the transverse aortic arch, eight (15.7%) had CoA, 20 (39.2%) had BAV, and eight (15.7%) had PAPVR. Aortic dilatation was most common at the aortic sinus (30%). Elongation of the transverse aortic arch was associated with CoA (p < 0.01) and BAV (p < 0.05). Patients with elongation of the transverse aortic arch had dilated aortic sinus (p < 0.05). Patients with PAPVR had increased right heart mass (p < 0.05), increased ratio of main pulmonary artery to aortic valve blood flow (p = 0.0014), and increased right ventricular volume (p < 0.05).
Cardiovascular anomalies in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome include aortic abnormalities and PAPVR. The significant association between elongation of the transverse aortic arch and CoA, BAV, and aortic sinus dilatation may contribute to increased risk of aortic dissection. The presence of PAPVR can be hemodynamically significant. These findings indicate that periodic cardiac MRI screening of persons with Turner syndrome is beneficial.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To describe in practical terms the clinical management in adult life of patients with Turner syndrome. Material & methods Systematic review of the literature and practical issues. An evaluation of clinical trials, meta-analysis, case reports and reviews assessing the management of different conditions related to Turner syndrome was done using the following data sources: Medline, PubMed (from 1966 to July 2014) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, Embase (up to July 2014). Results Extracted information is summarized here on karyotype, screening of malformations, malformations debuting in adult life, final height, treatments with growth hormone, cardiovascular risk, endocrino-metabolic and liver abnormalities, sensorineural disorders and osteoporosis and its treatment. Conclusions This review provides recommendations for the management of adult patients with Turner syndrome and insight into the associated medical complaints. A link between karyotypes and clinical features suggests a novel hypothesis to explain the different phenotypes and clinical abnormalities of these patients.Maturitas 12/2014; 79(4). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.08.011 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Folate metabolism dysfunction can lead to DNA hypomethylation and abnormal chromosomal segregation. Previous investigations of this association have produced controversial results. Here we performed a case-control study in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms of folate pathway genes as potential risk factors for somatic chromosomal nondisjunction. TS is a useful model for this investigation because patients with TS show a high frequency of chromosome mosaicism. Here we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene with TS risk, which has been previously investigated with controversial results. We also examined the effects of MTR, RFC1, and TYMS gene polymorphisms in TS for the first time. The risk was evaluated according to allelic and genotype (independent and combined) frequencies among 70 patients with TS and 144 age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymorphism genotyping was performed by PCR, PCR-RFLP, and PCR-ASA. The polymorphisms MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, RFC1 80G>A, and TYMS 2R/3R-alone or in combinations-were not associated with the risk of chromosomal aneuploidy in TS. In conclusion, our present findings did not support a link between impaired folate metabolism and abnormal chromosome segregation leading to somatic nondisjunction in TS patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.37055 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.Heart and Vessels 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00380-014-0529-0 · 2.11 Impact Factor