A review of psychophysiological stressors on pharmacokinetics.
ABSTRACT We conducted a comprehensive literature review on the effects of psychophysiological stressors on the pharmacokinetics of drugs commonly used by the Canadian Forces. These stressors may change the physiological status of an individual and subsequently may alter the drug's pharmacokinetics. The effects of isolated physical activities on pharmacokinetics have been well documented. However, the findings are inconsistent due to variations in the intensity and duration of the activity, and the routes and timing of drug administration. The effects of other environmental stressors, such as temperature extremes, hypobaric, hyperbaric, hyperoxic conditions, and the effects of multiple stressors are less well known. There are limited studies describing the effects of psychological stressors on drug pharmacokinetics. Further studies are necessary to understand the clinical implications of pharmacokinetic changes. We also discussed the advantage of using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict the effects of a single or multiple stressors.