TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) regulates stress granule dynamics via differential regulation of G3BP and TIA-1.
ABSTRACT TAR deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a multifunctional protein with roles in transcription, pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) splicing, mRNA stability and transport. TDP-43 interacts with other heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP A2, via its C-terminus and several hnRNP family members are involved in the cellular stress response. This relationship led us to investigate the role of TDP-43 in cellular stress. Our results demonstrate that TDP-43 and hnRNP A2 are localized to stress granules (SGs), following oxidative stress, heat shock and exposure to thapsigargin. TDP-43 contributes to both the assembly and maintenance of SGs in response to oxidative stress and differentially regulates key SGs components, including TIA-1 and G3BP. The controlled aggregation of TIA-1 is disrupted in the absence of TDP-43 resulting in slowed SG formation. In addition, TDP-43 regulates the levels of G3BP mRNA, a SG nucleating factor. The disease-associated mutation TDP-43(R361S) is a loss-of-function mutation with regards to SG formation and confers alterations in levels of G3BP and TIA-1. In contrast, a second mutation TDP-43(D169G) does not impact this pathway. Thus, mutations in TDP-43 are mechanistically divergent. Finally, the cellular function of TDP-43 extends beyond splicing and places TDP-43 as a participant of the central cellular response to stress and an active player in RNA storage.
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ABSTRACT: Background: We have previously reported the anti-metastatic effects of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) against MDA-MB-231 cell line. Purpose: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effects of MNQ towards MDA-MB-231 cell line via the comparative proteomic approach. Study design/methods: Differentially expressed proteins in MNQ-treated MDA-MB-231 cells were identified by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins and signalling pathways associated with the identified MNQ-altered proteins were studied by using Western blotting. Results: Significant modulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proteome was observed upon treatment with MNQ in which the expressions of 19 proteins were found to be downregulated whereas another eight were upregulated (>1.5 fold, p < 0.05). The altered proteins were mainly related to cytoskeletal functions and regulations, mRNA processing, protein modifications and oxidative stress response. Notably, two of the downregulated proteins, protein S100-A4 (S100A4) and laminin-binding protein (RPSA) are known to play key roles in driving metastasis and were verified using Western blotting. Further investigation using Western blotting also revealed that MNQ decreased the activations of pro-metastatic ERK1/2 and NF-κB signalling pathways. Moreover, MNQ was shown to stimulate the expression of the metastatic suppressor, E-cadherin. Conclusion: This study reports a proposed mechanism by which MNQ exerts its anti-metastatic effects against MDA-MB-231 cell line. The findings from this study offer new insights on the potential of MNQ to be developed as a novel anti-metastatic agent.Phytomedicine 03/2015; 22(5):517-527. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2015.03.007 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many neurodegenerative disorders are linked to irreversible protein aggregation, a process that usually comes along with toxicity and serious cellular damage. However, it is emerging that protein aggregation can also serve for physiological purposes, as impressively shown for prions. While the aggregation of this protein family was initially considered exclusively toxic in mammalians organisms, it is now almost clear that many other proteins adopt prion-like attributes to rationally polymerize into higher order complexes with organized physiologic roles. This implies that cells can tolerate at least in some measure the accumulation of inherently dangerous protein aggregates for functional profit. This review summarizes currently known strategies that living organisms adopt to preserve beneficial aggregation, and to prevent the catastrophic accumulation of toxic aggregates that frequently accompany neurodegeneration.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 02/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00045 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Propagation of pathological protein assemblies via a prion-like mechanism has been suggested to drive neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Recently, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked proteins, such as SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS were shown to follow self-perpetuating seeded aggregation, thereby adding ALS to the group of prion-like disorders. The cell-to-cell spread of these pathological protein assemblies and their pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood. However, as ALS is a non-cell autonomous disease and pathology in glial cells was shown to contribute to motor neuron damage, spreading mechanisms are likely to underlie disease progression via the interplay between affected neurons and their neighboring glial cells.Virus Research 02/2015; 8. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.12.032 · 2.83 Impact Factor