Multifunctional gadolinium-based dendritic macromolecules as liver targeting imaging probes.
ABSTRACT The quest for highly efficient and safe contrast agents has become the key factor for successful application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The gadolinium (Gd) based dendritic macromolecules, with precise and tunable nanoscopic sizes, are excellent candidates as multivalent MRI probes. In this paper, a novel series of Gd-based multifunctional peptide dendritic probes (generation 2, 3, and 4) possessing highly controlled structures and single molecular weight were designed and prepared as liver MRI probes. These macromolecular Gd-ligand agents exhibited up to 3-fold increase in T(1) relaxivity comparing to Gd-DTPA complexes. No obvious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed from the measured concentrations. These dendritic probes were further functionalized with multiple galactosyl moieties and led to much higher cell uptake in vitro as demonstrated in T(1)-weighted scans. During in vivo animal studies, the probes provided better signal intensity (SI) enhancement in mouse liver, especially at 60 min post-injection, with the most efficient enhancement from the galactosyl moiety decorated third generation dendrimer. The imaging results were verified with analysis of Gd content in liver tissues. The design strategy of multifunctional Gd-ligand peptide dendritic macromolecules in this study may be used for developing other sensitive MRI probes with targeting capability.
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ABSTRACT: The advent of nanoparticle DDSs (drug delivery systems, nano-DDSs) is opening new pathways to understanding physiology and pathophysiology at the nanometer scale. A nano-DDS can be used to deliver higher local concentrations of drugs to a target region and magnify therapeutic effects. However, interstitial cells in intractable tumors, as occurs in pancreatic or scirrhous stomach cancer, tend to impede nanoparticle delivery. Thus, it is critical to optimize the type and size of nanoparticles to reach the target. High-resolution 3D imaging provides a means of "seeing" the nanoparticle distribution and therapeutic effects. We introduce the concept of "nano-pathophysiological imaging" as a strategy for theranostics. The strategy consists of selecting an appropriate nano-DDS and rapidly evaluating drug effects in vivo to guide the next round of therapy. In this article we classify nano-DDSs by component carrier materials and present an overview of the significance of nano-pathophysiological MRI.Advanced drug delivery reviews 04/2014; · 11.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (201 K)Download as PowerPoint slideAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Peptide dendrimer drug conjugate based nanoparticles are recently developed as a potential candidate for drug delivery vehicle. In this study, we prepared and characterized the enzyme-sensitive amphiphilc mPEGylated dendron-GFLG-DOX conjugate via two-step highly efficient click reaction. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies demonstrated the mPEGylated dendron-GFLG-DOX conjugate self-assembled into compact nanoparticles with negatively charged surface. The nanoparticles with 9.62 wt% (weight percent) of DOX showed enzyme-sensitive property by drug release tests. The nanoparticles were shown to effectively kill cancer cells in vitro. The fluorescent image indicated that the nanoparticles could accumulate and retain within tumor for a long time. Moreover, the nanoparticles substantially enhanced antitumor efficacy compared to the free DOX, exhibiting much higher effects on inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the 4T1 murine breast cancer model confirmed as the evidences from tumor growth curves, tumor growth inhibition (TGI), immunohistochemical analysis and histological assessment. The nanoparticles reduced DOX-induced toxicities and presented no significant side effects to normal organs of both tumor bearing and healthy mice as measured by body weight shifts and histological analysis. Therefore, the mPEGylated dendron-GFLG-DOX conjugate based nanoparticle serves as a potential drug delivery vehicle for breast cancer therapy.Biomaterials 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor