Analysis of the anatomy of the maxillary sinus septum using 3-dimensional computed tomography.
ABSTRACT Maxillary posterior teeth exhibit a high incidence of periodontal bone and tooth loss. After tooth loss, the edentulous alveolar process of the posterior maxilla is often affected by resorption, which results in loss of vertical bone volume. Moreover, progressive sinus pneumatization leads to a decrease in the alveolar process from the cranial side. The sinus elevation and augmentation surgical technique opened a new way of anchoring endosseous implants despite discernible bone reduction. However, the surgical interventions require in-depth knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy such as sinus septum and potential variations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, location, height, morphology, and orientation of maxillary sinus septa by use of computed tomography (CT) and 3-dimensional imaging.
Two hundred patients undergoing implant treatment at the Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea, were randomly selected for analysis of maxillary sinus septa. CT and DentaScan (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI)-reformatted data from 400 sinuses were analyzed with the Preview program (Infinitt, Seoul, South Korea). Three-dimensional images were rendered for measurement by use of the Accurex program (CyberMed, Seoul, South Korea).
We found 111 septa in 400 maxillary sinuses (27.7%). This corresponded to 37% of the patients. Among total septa, 25 sinus septa (22.5%) were located in the anterior, 51 (45.9%) in the middle, and 35 (31.5%) in the posterior regions. The directional orientation analyses showed that 106 septa were buccopalatal, 4 were sagittal, and 1 was transverse type. The mean septal heights were 7.78 ± 2.99 and 7.89 ± 3.09 mm in the right and left sinuses, respectively.
Three-dimensional CT image analyses may provide useful information that can avoid unnecessary complications during sinus augmentation procedures by facilitating adequate, timely identification of the anatomic structures inherent to the maxillary sinus.
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ABSTRACT: Maxillary sinus septas are barriers of cortical bone that arise from the floor or from the walls of sinus and may even divide the sinus into two or more cavities. Morphologically maxillary sinus septa are generally oriented in buccopalatinal orientation horizontal or sagittal orientation of the sinus septa is a rare condition. This report presents two sinus lift case, in which observed septa in a horizontal orientation was presented. Both cases were fixed by an implant supported prosthethic restoration. Surgeons must know detailed knowledge about maxillary sinus anatomy for successful sinus augmentation. Computed tomography (CT) is useful for examining the maxillary sinus. Horizontal-type sinus septa are rarely seen. Surgeons must be aware of septa types and orientations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.05/2015; 44. DOI:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.05.001
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ABSTRACT: To test patient- and sinus-related risk factors for an association with intraoperative membrane perforation and postoperative complications after sinus floor augmentation surgery. Sinus floor elevation procedures using a lateral approach were retrospectively analyzed for patients' medical history and sinus anatomy on computed tomographic scans. Complications per sinus after membrane elevation and augmentation using a mixture of autologous bone and deproteinized bovine bone substitute (Bio-Oss) were recorded. Logic regression (adjusted using the generalized estimation equation approach) was performed to analyze the influence of patient age, gender, smoking habits, sinus septa, residual bone height, and mesiodistal elevation width. Of 407 sinus grafts in 300 patients (mean age, 56 yr), perforation of the Schneiderian membrane occurred in 35 sinuses (8.6%) and was significantly associated to the presence of sinus septa (odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; P = .002) and decreased residual bone height (OR = 0.01; P < .001). Smoking increased the risk of membrane perforation (OR = 4.8; P = .002), sinusitis (OR = 12.3; P < .001), and wound dehiscence (OR = 16.1; P = .005). Cases of sinus membrane perforation had higher odds for postoperative sinusitis (OR = 10.5; P < .001). The probability of wound dehiscence increased with the size of the elevated area (OR = 3; P < .001). The results of the study suggest that the presence of sinus septa and residual bone height less than 3.5 mm are the main risk factors increasing sinus membrane perforation rates. There was a higher prevalence for sinusitis in cases of membrane perforation (31.4%) despite intraoperative closure with resorbable membranes (Bio-Guide). Smokers generally exhibited greater chances for complications. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2015.01.039 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to measure the distance of the intraosseous vascular anastomosis in the anterolateral wall of the maxillary sinus from different reference points, and to correlate the location of the intraosseous vascular anastomosis with the tooth position and the residual bone height of the maxilla. Computed tomography (CT) images were taken from 283 patients undergoing dental implants placement in the posterior maxilla. Three horizontal lines were drawn at the ridge crest, maxillary sinus floor, and the position of the anastomosis. A vertical second line at the center of each tooth was drawn perpendicular to the horizontal lines. The distance from the ridge crest to the maxillary sinus floor and the distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the bony canal were measured from the intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines. The residual alveolar bone height was used to categorize three groups: group 1,<4 mm; group 2, between 4 and 8 mm; and group 3, >8 mm. The residual bone height values of different tooth positions were significantly different (P=0.0002). The distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the intraosseous vascular anastomosis was significantly different between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.0039). At the molar sites, a moderate negative correlation was found between the residual bone height and the distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the intraosseous anastomosis. The distances of the alveolar ridge crest and the maxillary sinus from the intraosseous vascular anastomosis were not significantly different between sexes. Within the limitations of this study, sites with a higher residual bone height in the molar regions were at a relatively high risk of artery damage during window osteotomy preparation; therefore, we recommend taking more precautions when using a lateral approach for sinus elevation.Journal of periodontal & implant science 04/2014; 44(2):50-6. DOI:10.5051/jpis.2014.44.2.50