Maxillary posterior teeth exhibit a high incidence of periodontal bone and tooth loss. After tooth loss, the edentulous alveolar process of the posterior maxilla is often affected by resorption, which results in loss of vertical bone volume. Moreover, progressive sinus pneumatization leads to a decrease in the alveolar process from the cranial side. The sinus elevation and augmentation surgical technique opened a new way of anchoring endosseous implants despite discernible bone reduction. However, the surgical interventions require in-depth knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy such as sinus septum and potential variations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, location, height, morphology, and orientation of maxillary sinus septa by use of computed tomography (CT) and 3-dimensional imaging.
Two hundred patients undergoing implant treatment at the Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea, were randomly selected for analysis of maxillary sinus septa. CT and DentaScan (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI)-reformatted data from 400 sinuses were analyzed with the Preview program (Infinitt, Seoul, South Korea). Three-dimensional images were rendered for measurement by use of the Accurex program (CyberMed, Seoul, South Korea).
We found 111 septa in 400 maxillary sinuses (27.7%). This corresponded to 37% of the patients. Among total septa, 25 sinus septa (22.5%) were located in the anterior, 51 (45.9%) in the middle, and 35 (31.5%) in the posterior regions. The directional orientation analyses showed that 106 septa were buccopalatal, 4 were sagittal, and 1 was transverse type. The mean septal heights were 7.78 ± 2.99 and 7.89 ± 3.09 mm in the right and left sinuses, respectively.
Three-dimensional CT image analyses may provide useful information that can avoid unnecessary complications during sinus augmentation procedures by facilitating adequate, timely identification of the anatomic structures inherent to the maxillary sinus.
"A CT scan can determine sinus pathology that panaromic radiography cannot detect. CT imaging provides proper surgical planing and helps to prevent complications . In our cases, both septas were not observed with panoramic radiograph so a preoperative CT examination was necessary. "
"Computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which provide sectional views, are used for dental implant installation procedures, particularly in areas with anatomical limitations [16,17,18]. CT and CBCT are considered more accurate than intraoral or extraoral radiography and can provide 3-dimensional information about maxillary sinus structures [19,20,21]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to measure the distance of the intraosseous vascular anastomosis in the anterolateral wall of the maxillary sinus from different reference points, and to correlate the location of the intraosseous vascular anastomosis with the tooth position and the residual bone height of the maxilla.
Computed tomography (CT) images were taken from 283 patients undergoing dental implants placement in the posterior maxilla. Three horizontal lines were drawn at the ridge crest, maxillary sinus floor, and the position of the anastomosis. A vertical second line at the center of each tooth was drawn perpendicular to the horizontal lines. The distance from the ridge crest to the maxillary sinus floor and the distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the bony canal were measured from the intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines. The residual alveolar bone height was used to categorize three groups: group 1,<4 mm; group 2, between 4 and 8 mm; and group 3, >8 mm.
The residual bone height values of different tooth positions were significantly different (P=0.0002). The distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the intraosseous vascular anastomosis was significantly different between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.0039). At the molar sites, a moderate negative correlation was found between the residual bone height and the distance from the maxillary sinus floor to the intraosseous anastomosis. The distances of the alveolar ridge crest and the maxillary sinus from the intraosseous vascular anastomosis were not significantly different between sexes.
Within the limitations of this study, sites with a higher residual bone height in the molar regions were at a relatively high risk of artery damage during window osteotomy preparation; therefore, we recommend taking more precautions when using a lateral approach for sinus elevation.
"Prompt evaluation of the maxillary sinus volume can be useful in procedures of sinus floor elevation in placement of implants (Kuhl et al., 2010) or to establish the optimal volume of implant in this procedure (Gray et al., 2000); it is also useful to determine the percentage of pneumatization in this cavity (Park et al., 2011). "
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