Trauma reminders and PTSD symptoms in children three years after a terrorist attack in Beslan
ABSTRACT As a consequence of a terrorist attack, children may experience trauma-related internal and external reminders that are directly linked to their physical and psychological health. We assessed PTSD and trauma reminders in 58 school-age children three years after the terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia in 2004, as well as their association with degree of exposure, psychological distress and coping. Findings revealed a prevalence of situational trauma reminders associated with high levels of distress in more exposed children. The presence of PTSD was predicted by level of exposure to the attack, frequency of exposure to trauma reminders, and support seeking as a coping strategy. Findings are discussed in light of the socio-political climate in Beslan and distress experienced by the population three years after the attack.
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- "Conversely, reburial ceremonies serve as public symbols that not only highlight the past trauma, but may also promote healing and resilience (Eppel, 2002; Honwana, 1997; Pollack, 2003). Similar to Scrimin et al.'s (2011) "
ABSTRACT: Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience.Social Science [?] Medicine 04/2014; 106:128–136. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.043 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has long been recognized that human beings exposed to severe stress may develop psychological symptoms. With recent terrorist acts around the world including the New York City World Trade Center September 11, 2001 atrocity, there has been a growing interest in the specific impact of terrorist acts on the victims and witnesses. One area that has received less study is the specific impact on children. This paper reviews some of the general effects of traumatic stress on children and the history of the research in this area including a specific discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder in children. This is followed by a review of how children might react to the trauma of a terrorist attack differentiating between three different subgroups of children (preschool age children, school-age children, and adolescents). Then there is a review of what a comprehensive evaluation of childhood victims of terrorism should entail. Finally, treatment modalities that have been shown to be effective are reviewed.Psychiatric Quarterly 06/2012; 84(1). DOI:10.1007/s11126-012-9232-4 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research indicates that risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is shaped by the interaction between genetic vulnerability and early caregiving experiences; yet, caregiving has typically been assessed by adult retrospective accounts. Here, we employed a prospective longitudinal design with real-time observations of early caregiving combined with assessment of genetic liability along the axis of vasopressin-oxytocin (OT) gene pathways to test G × E contributions to PTSD. Participants were 232 young Israeli children (1.5-5 years) and their parents, including 148 living in zones of continuous war and 84 controls. A cumulative genetic risk factor was computed for each family member by summing five risk alleles across three genes (OXTR, CD38 and AVPR1a) previously associated with psychopathology, sociality and caregiving. Child PTSD was diagnosed and mother-child interactions were observed in multiple contexts. In middle childhood (7-8 years), child psychopathology was re-evaluated. War exposure increased propensity to develop Axis-I disorder by threefold: 60% of exposed children displayed a psychiatric disorder by middle childhood and 62% of those showed several comorbid disorders. On the other hand, maternal sensitive support reduced risk for psychopathology. G × E effect was found for child genetic risk: in the context of war exposure, greater genetic risk on the vasopressin-OT pathway increased propensity for psychopathology. Among exposed children, chronicity of PTSD from early to middle childhood was related to higher child, maternal and paternal genetic risk, low maternal support and greater initial avoidance symptoms. Child avoidance was predicted by low maternal support and reduced mother-child reciprocity. These findings underscore the saliency of both genetic and behavioral facets of the human affiliation system in shaping vulnerability to PTSD as well as providing an underlying mechanism of post-traumatic resilience.Translational Psychiatry 03/2014; 4(3):e370. DOI:10.1038/tp.2014.6 · 5.62 Impact Factor