Inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of carcinoma, including squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cyclooxygenase-2 is an enzyme that is induced at inflammation sites. We assessed the expression pattern of cyclooxygenase-2 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and determined whether cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with clinical outcomes after radical cystectomy.
Immunohistochemical staining for cyclooxygenase-2 was done on archival bladder specimens from 152 patients treated with radical cystectomy for squamous cell carcinoma on the Autostainer (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, California). Bright field microscopy imaging coupled with advanced color detection software was used. Cyclooxygenase-2 was defined as over expressed when greater than 20% cells were positive. We assessed the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 expression with pathological parameters and clinical outcome.
The study included 99 male and 53 female patients with a mean age of 52 years who had squamous cell carcinoma, including 80.9% with bilharziasis. Presenting stage was T2 or greater and presenting grade was GII or less in 93.4% of patients. Median followup was 63.2 months. Cyclooxygenase-2 was over expressed in 74 cystectomy specimens (48.7%) and associated with higher pathological stage (p=0.003) and grade (p=0.049). On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis cyclooxygenase-2 over expression was associated with disease recurrence (p=0.031) and bladder cancer specific mortality (p=0.046).
Cyclooxygenase-2 over expression is associated with pathological stage, grade and worse outcomes after radical cystectomy, suggesting a role in bladder squamous cell carcinoma progression. Our findings support the need for further evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammatory signaling pathways, and cyclooxygenase-2 targeted prevention or therapy in patients with bladder squamous cell carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with locally 'advanced' or muscle invasive bladder cancer have higher mortality rates than patients with nonmuscle invasive ('superficial') bladder cancer. Biomarkers can stratify clinical outcomes and thus promise to more accurately prognosticate and thus help assign patients to the appropriate treatments. The aim of this review is to summarize biomarker developments in the past year and to discuss their implications in prognosis and treatment selection in locally advanced bladder cancer.
Prognostic biomarkers for bladder cancer are identified at the DNA, RNA and/or protein levels. Some are new markers, whereas others are established markers with new roles in bladder cancer. Markers can report on the risk of disease recurrence or metastasis, or treatment responsiveness and thus are useful in determining 'who to treat' and 'what to treat with'.
The list of biomarkers for prognosis and treatment selection for advanced bladder cancer is growing. For most, their clinical relevance is unclear due to their lack of validation in external datasets. MicroRNAs and new techniques including next-generation sequencing offer additional opportunities for biomarker discovery, validation, and clinical applications.
Current opinion in urology 09/2011; 21(5):420-7. DOI:10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834956d6 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge on the aetiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) is scant. The best established risk factor for EPC is tobacco smoking. Among other carcinogens, tobacco contains cadmium, a metal previously associated with an increased risk of EPC. This study evaluated the association between concentrations of trace elements in toenails and EPC risk.
The study included 118 EPC cases and 399 hospital controls from eastern Spain. Levels of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. OR and 95% CI, adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression.
Significantly increased risks of EPC were observed among subjects whose concentrations of cadmium (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86 to 6.88; p(trend)=5×10(-6)), arsenic (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.78; p(trend)=0.009) and lead (OR 6.26, 95% CI 2.71 to 14.47; p(trend)=3×10(-5)) were in the highest quartile. High concentrations of selenium (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.15; p(trend)=8×10(-11)) and nickel (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.59; p(trend)=2×10(-4)) were inversely associated with the risk of EPC.
Novel associations are reported of lead, nickel and selenium toenail concentrations with pancreas cancer risk. Furthermore, the results confirm previous associations with cadmium and arsenic. These novel findings, if replicated in independent studies, would point to an important role of trace elements in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Gut 12/2011; 61(11):1583-8. DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301086 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of cleaved caspase-3 (CC-3), Bax, COX-2, and p53 expression with pathological features and clinical outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. METHODS Immunohistochemistry for CC-3, Bax, COX-2, and p53 was performed on tissue microarray sections of radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. The relationship between the expression of these markers and pathological features was assessed. A prognostic marker score (PS) was defined as favourable if <= 2 biomarkers were altered and unfavourable if >2 biomarkers were altered and the association of the PS with oncological outcomes was examined. RESULTS The study included 151 patients, of whom 98 were men and 53 were women, with a mean age of 52 years. SCC was associated with schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) in 122 (81%) patients. Pathological stage was T2 in 50%, T3 in 38%, T1 in 6% and T4 in 6% of patients. Tumours were low grade in 53%, lymph node metastasis was found in 30.5% and lymphovascular invasion was found in 16% of patients. Median follow-up was 63.2 months. Advanced stage was associated with COX-2, p53 and CC-3 alterations and high grade was associated with COX-2 alterations (P < 0.05). The total number of altered markers and unfavourable PS were associated with both disease recurrence and bladder cancer-specific mortality in Kaplan-Meier analyses (P < 0.05). Unfavourable PS was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.694, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.386-5.235, P = 0. 003) and bladder cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.868, 95% CI 1.209-6.802, P = 0. 017) in multivariable Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSION Markers of apoptosis pathways may play an important role in the prognosis of SCC of the bladder. An increased number of altered markers and an unfavourable PS may identify patients who might benefit from multimodal therapies.
BJU International 02/2012; 110(7):961-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.10949.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.