Two decades of pediatric lung transplant in the United States: Have we improved?

Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex 77030, USA.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.99). 03/2011; 141(3):828-32, 832.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.06.067
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since 1988, approximately 1100 pediatric lung transplants have been performed worldwide with consistent improvement in survival. Similarly, survival for pediatric heart transplant has increased over the years; however, in this cohort improvement in survival is exclusively a result of increased early (1-year) survival. To observe if this same phenomenon exists in pediatric lung transplants, the United Network for Organ Sharing database was analyzed to evaluate and characterize how pediatric lung transplant survival has changed in the past 2 decades.
The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for patients aged 18 years or less who underwent lung transplantation from May 1988 to May 2008. Analysis included 959 pediatric lung transplants.
Age groups were infants (≤1 years) (n = 106 [11%]), children (2-12 years) (n = 299 [31%]), and adolescents (≥13 years) (n = 554 [58%]). A total of 546 (57%) were girls. Kaplan-Meier survival was significantly better in the late era (2002-2008) than in all other eras (1988-1994 and 1995-2001) (P < .05). The half-life for graft has increased significantly over the eras (early, 2.2 years; mid, 3.3 years; and late, 3.8 years). Conditional 1-year survival (ie, mid to late survival) was not significantly different (P = .3) among the eras. Gender, age, diagnosis, prolonged ischemic time, and cytomegalovirus mismatch did not significantly affect overall patient or graft survival. Chronic preoperative steroid dependence (P = .02), preoperative ventilatory dependence (P < .001), and retransplantation (P = .02) were associated with decreased survival.
Survival in pediatric lung transplant has increased significantly over the years, but this improvement primarily reflects improvement in early survival. Survival in pediatric lung transplant after the first posttransplant year has not changed in more than 2 decades.

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    ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation (LTx) is a treatment option for infants and children with untreatable and otherwise fatal pulmonary diseases. To date, over 1,800 lung transplants have been performed, most frequently in children over the age of five years. The most common indications for transplantation in children overall are cystic fibrosis (CF) and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (PH). The surfactant protein deficiencies, other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), and congenital heart disease are important indications among young children and infants. Re-transplantation is an option for selected recipients with chronic allograft rejection. Overall survival following pediatric LTx is similar to that encountered in adult patients, with recent registry data indicating a median survival of 4.9 years. Other outcomes such as the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and the presence of key post-transplant co-morbid conditions are also similar to the experience in adult lung transplant recipients.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There have been >1,600 pediatric lung transplantations (LTx) performed worldwide with a trend toward improved outcomes over the last 25 years. The majority of these LTxs have been in older children and adolescents. Less than 4 infant (defined as≤12 months of age) LTxs per year have been performed over the past 20 years, mostly in the USA. However, infant LTx outcomes have not been well documented in a multi-institutional longitudinal fashion. METHODS: The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried from October 1987 to July 2011. Of the 1,003 pediatric LTxs reported, 84 (8%) were infants. All combined transplantations were excluded. RESULTS: Eighty-one infants received 84 LTxs, of which 95% had a bilateral LTx. Median age and weight at LTx was 4 months (range 0 to 11 months) and 5.3 kg (2.7 to 11.8 kg), respectively. Median ischemic time was 5.2 hours (2.0 to 10.8 hours). Overall Kaplan-Meier graft survival was similar for infants compared with other pediatric age group (OPA: >1 to 18 years) LTx recipients (half-life 4.0 years vs 3.4 years, p = 0.7). Conditional 1-year graft survival for infants was significantly higher than OPA (half-life 7.4 years vs 5.0 years, p = 0.024). Early (1987 to 2000, n = 46) and late (2001 to 2011, n = 38) era graft survival was not significantly different. Graft survival in pre-LTx ventilated infants was significantly better than pre-LTx ventilated OPA (half-life 6.1 years vs 0.9 year, p = 0.004) and was not statistically different from pre-LTx infants not on ventilatory support (half-life 6.1 years vs 2.2 years, p = 0.152). Cox regression of 5 variables (weight, donor arterial PO(2), pre-Tx ventilator, organ ischemic time, center experience) showed that survival was associated with increased center experience (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Infants undergoing LTx have outcomes similar to those of all other pediatric LTx patients.
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Jun 4, 2014