Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor?
ABSTRACT Propionate is produced along with acetate and butyrate as a result of fermentative activity of gut microflora on dietary fiber. It has long been known to exhibit hypophagic effects in ruminants, however, its potential physiological roles in non-ruminants as well as humans remained unnoticed over the years. In view of various studies pointing towards the hypophagic as well as hypocholesterolemic effects of propionate in humans, it may act as an important factor in amelioration of obesity, a lifestyle disease arising due to energy imbalance and growing at a startling rate globally. Short chain fatty acids have recently been ascribed as ligands to G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs) 41 and 43. Thus, propionate along with acetate may also be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipokine release mediated via GPRs. The present review summarizes the evidence which collectively raise the possibility of propionate as a dietary factor to depress appetite and combat the obesity epidemic.
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ABSTRACT: T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation.Immune Network 12/2014; 14(6):277-88.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to compare digestibility of grass hay, faecal and plasma volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and faecal bacterial abundance in overweight and moderate-condition mares. Five overweight adult mixed-breed mares and five adult mixed-breed mares in moderate condition were housed individually and limit-fed orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) hay at 20 g/kg body weight (as fed) daily for 14 d. Forage DM and fibre digestibility were determined using AOAC methods; digestible energy was measured using bomb calorimetry; plasma and faecal VFA concentrations were determined by use of GC and MS; faecal Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria abundance was determined by quantitative real-time PCR using previously designed phylum-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene primers. No differences in hay digestibility, faecal VFA concentrations or faecal bacterial abundance were detected between overweight and moderate-condition mares. Mean plasma acetate concentrations were higher (P = 0·03) in overweight (1·55 (range 1·43-1·65) mmol/l) v. moderate-condition (1·39 (range 1·22-1·47) mmol/l) mares. We conclude that the higher plasma acetate in overweight mares should be further investigated as a potential link between gut microbes and obesity in horses.Journal of nutritional science. 01/2014; 3:e10.
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ABSTRACT: The complex biochemical composition of onions has been studied as a source of biological components with health-related properties. The evolution of hypercholesterolemia is associated with a large range of alterations considered as strong risk factors for many cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of onion as functional ingredient on plasma, erythrocyte, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid composition in hypercholesterolemic male Wistar rats. Rats (n=24) were randomly divided into three groups: control (C), high-cholesterol (HC), and high-cholesterol enriched with onion (HCO) groups. At the end of 7weeks, animals were anesthetized and euthanized by extracting blood by cardiac puncture. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver and adipose tissue were collected and immediately stored at −80°C. Fatty acid methyl esters were identified and quantified by GC/MS. Total fatty acid concentration decreased in liver and adipose tissue both in HC and HCO groups. SFA content was significantly higher in plasma, erythrocytes and liver in the C group compared to HC and HCO groups. In contrast, SFAs increased in adipose tissue both in HC and HCO groups compared to the C group. A significant increase in MUFA content in plasma was found in HC and HCO groups compared to the C group; in erythrocytes and liver the increase was lower. In plasma, PUFA content was significantly lower in HC and HCO groups compared to the C group. Interestingly, in liver and adipose tissue, PUFAs increased in HC and HCO groups compared to the C group. Results showed noticeable effects on individual fatty acid composition when assaying high-cholesterol diets in rats, in some cases enhanced by onion enrichment. Further research is needed to deeper understand the involved mechanisms and pathways.Food Res. Int. 10/2014; 64:546-552.