Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor?
ABSTRACT Propionate is produced along with acetate and butyrate as a result of fermentative activity of gut microflora on dietary fiber. It has long been known to exhibit hypophagic effects in ruminants, however, its potential physiological roles in non-ruminants as well as humans remained unnoticed over the years. In view of various studies pointing towards the hypophagic as well as hypocholesterolemic effects of propionate in humans, it may act as an important factor in amelioration of obesity, a lifestyle disease arising due to energy imbalance and growing at a startling rate globally. Short chain fatty acids have recently been ascribed as ligands to G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs) 41 and 43. Thus, propionate along with acetate may also be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipokine release mediated via GPRs. The present review summarizes the evidence which collectively raise the possibility of propionate as a dietary factor to depress appetite and combat the obesity epidemic.
- SourceAvailable from: Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
Polysaccharides: Natural Fibers in Food and Nutrition, Edited by Dr. Noureddine, Benkeblia, 06/2014: chapter Dietary polysaccharides for the modulation of obesity via beneficial gut microbial manipulation.: pages 367-384; CRC Press., ISBN: 978-1-4665-7181-5
- "In addition, SCFAs are recognized as potential mediators of intestinal inflammatory response (Meijer et al. 2010). Propionate suppresses proinflammatory markers (Al-Lahham et al. 2010) and enhances appetite (Arora et al. 2011). Butyrate, the prime among SCFAs, acts as a fuel for colonocytes , promotes health, and acts as an epigenetic regulator through histone deacetylase inhibition (Canani et al. 2012). "
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- "Furthermore, Turnbaugh et al.( 24 ) reported that obese mice (ob/ob) have higher caecal acetate concentrations than non-obese wild-type mice. The role of VFA such as acetate on fat mass may be two-fold: VFA serve as an energy source and as ligands for G protein-coupled receptors with subsequent inhibition of lipolysis and stimulation of adipogenesis( 25 , 26 ). In horses, plasma acetate may be aerobically oxidised and directly used for energy( 27 ) or stored as TAG in adipose and skeletal tissue( 28 ). "
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to compare digestibility of grass hay, faecal and plasma volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and faecal bacterial abundance in overweight and moderate-condition mares. Five overweight adult mixed-breed mares and five adult mixed-breed mares in moderate condition were housed individually and limit-fed orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) hay at 20 g/kg body weight (as fed) daily for 14 d. Forage DM and fibre digestibility were determined using AOAC methods; digestible energy was measured using bomb calorimetry; plasma and faecal VFA concentrations were determined by use of GC and MS; faecal Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria abundance was determined by quantitative real-time PCR using previously designed phylum-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene primers. No differences in hay digestibility, faecal VFA concentrations or faecal bacterial abundance were detected between overweight and moderate-condition mares. Mean plasma acetate concentrations were higher (P = 0·03) in overweight (1·55 (range 1·43-1·65) mmol/l) v. moderate-condition (1·39 (range 1·22-1·47) mmol/l) mares. We conclude that the higher plasma acetate in overweight mares should be further investigated as a potential link between gut microbes and obesity in horses.05/2014; 3:e10. DOI:10.1017/jns.2014.8
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- "Additionally, a lower ratio of serum acetate to propionate is associated with lower serum cholesterol [29,30] but was not seen in the current study. Although most SCFA produced in the colon are metabolised by the liver small amounts enter the systemic circulation [31,32] and there is growing evidence that they may directly regulate adipogenesis and adipokine release in adipose tissue mediated via G-protein coupled receptors . Fermentation of a single meal high in RS (measured using breath hydrogen) was associated with a reduction in plasma NEFA levels in healthy subjects . "
ABSTRACT: Background Animal studies show that diets containing resistant starch (RS) at levels not achievable in the human diet result in lower body weight and/or adiposity in rodents. We aimed to determine whether RS dose-dependently reduces adiposity in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n=120) were fed a moderate-fat, high-energy diet for 4 wk. Rats that gained the most weight (40%) were classified as obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were the 40% that gained the least weight. OP and OR rats were randomly allocated to one of six groups (n=8 for each phenotype). One group was killed for baseline measurements, the other five groups were allocated to AIN-93 based diets that contained 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% RS (as high amylose maize starch) for 4 wk. These diets were matched for total carbohydrate content. At 0, 4 and 7 wk from the start of the study insulin sensitivity was calculated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adiposity was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At 8 wk, rats were euthanized and fat pad weights, intestinal digesta short chain fatty acid (SCFA) pools and plasma gut hormone levels were determined. Results Obesity prone rats gained less weight with 4, 12 and 16% RS compared to 0% RS, but the effect in OR animals was significant only at 16% RS. Irrespective of phenotype, diets containing ≥8% RS reduced adiposity compared to 0% RS. Energy intake decreased by 9.8 kJ/d for every 4% increase in RS. All diets containing RS increased total SCFA pools in the caecum and lowered plasma GIP concentrations compared to the 0% RS, whereas plasma GLP-1 and PYY were increased when the diet contained at least 8% RS. Insulin sensitivity was not affected by RS. Conclusion RS in amounts that could be potentially consumed by humans were effective in reducing adiposity and weight gain in OP and OR rats, due in part to a reduction in energy intake, and changes in gut hormones and large bowel carbohydrate fermentation.Nutrition & Metabolism 10/2012; 9(1):93. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-9-93 · 3.26 Impact Factor