Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor?
ABSTRACT Propionate is produced along with acetate and butyrate as a result of fermentative activity of gut microflora on dietary fiber. It has long been known to exhibit hypophagic effects in ruminants, however, its potential physiological roles in non-ruminants as well as humans remained unnoticed over the years. In view of various studies pointing towards the hypophagic as well as hypocholesterolemic effects of propionate in humans, it may act as an important factor in amelioration of obesity, a lifestyle disease arising due to energy imbalance and growing at a startling rate globally. Short chain fatty acids have recently been ascribed as ligands to G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs) 41 and 43. Thus, propionate along with acetate may also be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipokine release mediated via GPRs. The present review summarizes the evidence which collectively raise the possibility of propionate as a dietary factor to depress appetite and combat the obesity epidemic.
SourceAvailable from: Emilie Combet[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2014.971225 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation. A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation.Immune Network 12/2014; 14(6):277-88. DOI:10.4110/in.2014.14.6.277
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ABSTRACT: Probiotic strains can exert positive effects on human health by various mechanisms, among which the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). All the SCFA, mainly acetic, propionic and butyric acid, display beneficial effects on human health; butyric acid is the most interesting for its role in the prevention and treatment of colonic diseases. In this study the ability of 17 potentially probiotic food-isolated lactic add bacteria to produce SCFA, directly or indirectly through the production of lactic acid, was investigated. Propionic and butyric acids were quantified by gas chromatography; acetic and lactic acids were quantified by specific enzymatic kits. All the tested strains displayed the ability to produce significant amounts of acetic and lactic acids (in the range of g/L) and just small amounts of propionic and butyric acids (in the range of mg/L). The extracellular proteomes of two of these strains, Lactobacillus plantarum S11T3E and Lactobacillus pentosus S3T60C, were evaluated by coupling 2-DE and MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. This is an interesting approach to investigate a probiotic strain, since secreted proteins represent the first contact point between bacteria and the host after ingestion. Six and seven proteins, in different isoforms, were identified from L pentosus S3T60C and L. plantarum S11T3E, respectively. All of them have a predicted extracellular location, indicating the effectiveness of the used protocol. L plantarum S11T3E secretes several proteins with adhesive function, suggesting that in this strain the ability to adhere to gut mucosa depends on this kind of molecules. In L pentosus S3T60C just one adhesive protein is secreted suggesting that other families of molecules play a role in its adhesive ability.Food Research International 01/2015; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.11.029 · 3.05 Impact Factor