Topical beta-carotene protects against infra-red-light-induced free radicals

Center of Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology, Charité- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Experimental Dermatology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 02/2011; 20(2):125-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01191.x
Source: PubMed


The influence of stress factors on human skin induces the production of free radicals. Free radicals react immediately with antioxidants contained in the skin, giving rise to their depletion and with the surrounding molecules, resulting in their damage, disorganization and even destruction. High amounts of free radicals are produced in the upper skin layers, i.e. mainly in the epidermis, subsequent to sun irradiation. Irradiation of the skin in the infra-red (IR) range of the spectra, applied at physiological doses, can produce free radicals. The magnitude of destruction of antioxidants, such as carotenoids, can serve as a marker of the extent of the stress factor, characterized by the quantity of produced free radicals. In this study, measurements on the degradation of cutaneous carotenoids following IR skin irradiation of 12 healthy volunteers (skin type II), with two IR sources (standard infrared radiator = SIR and water filter infrared = wIRA) were taken using resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical application of the antioxidant beta-carotene (2 mg/cm(2) ) provided protection for the human skin when exposed to IR radiation. The magnitude of the degradation of dermal carotenoids after IR irradiation was significantly higher for SIR than for wIRA irradiation, for both non-treated and cream-treated skin areas. The amount of destroyed carotenoids after IR irradiation was higher in the case of pretreatment with beta-carotene than for the untreated skin, indicating that the superficial part of antioxidants is most important for protecting against external stressors. The direct comparison of beta-carotene content was significantly higher for the cream-treated compared to untreated areas for all pairs: baseline, wIRA, after wIRA, baseline SIR and after SIR. Additionally, topically applied carotenoids as a single antioxidant component are less stable than the carotenoids in the skin incorporated by nutrition and accumulated in a mixture with different antioxidant substances. Resonance Raman spectroscopy can be used for the non-invasive measurements of carotenoids, which can be rated as marker substances of redox processes.

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Available from: Maxim E Darvin, Jun 03, 2014
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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / e j p s beta-carotene protects skin against photooxidative damages induced by UVA radiation such as lipid peroxidation, by quenching singlet oxygen (Terao et al., 2011). Its topical application can also protect skin against free radicals generated by exposure to infra-red radiation (Darvin et al., 2011). As a consequence of sunlight exposure some compounds may undergo photochemical reactions giving rise to ROS such as singlet oxygen and superoxide (Cuquerella et al., 2012; Epe, 2012), which can trigger photodamage processes (Nichols and Katiyar, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Trans-resveratrol (RES) is used in cosmetic formulations and beta-carotene (BTC) is a classical sunscreen antioxidant, but their photostability in sunscreens, a property directly correlated to performance and safety has not been addressed in the literature. This paper reports the assessment of RES and/or BTC influence on the photostability of five UV-filters (octyl methoxycinnamate - OMC, avobenzone -AVO, octocrylene - OCT, bemotrizinole - BMZ, octyltriazone - OTZ) in three different combinations after UVA exposure followed by the identification of degradation products and the assessement of photoreactivity. The evaluation of sunscreen photostability was performed by HPLC and spectrophotometric analysis, and degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis. Components RES, BTC, OMC and AVO were significantly degraded after UV exposure (reduction of around 16% in recovery). According to HPLC analysis, all formulations presented similar photostability profiles. Eleven degradation products were identified in GC-MS analysis, among them products of RES, BTC, OMC and AVO photodegradation. All evaluated formulations were considered photoreactive, as well as the isolated compounds RES, BTC and AVO. Considering HPLC, spectrophotometric and GC-MS results, it is suggested that formulations containing bemotrizinole were considered the most photostable. The combination RES + BTC in a sunscreen improved the photostability of AVO. The benefits of using a combination of antioxidants in sunscreens was demonstrated by showing that using RES + BTC + studied UV-filters led to more photostable formulations, which in turn implies in better safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2015.07.004 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    • "Research Paper activity [9]. It has also been suggested that fucoxanthin has potential health promoting effects in humans, including anticancer , anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects as well as anti-malarial activity [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As a major primary producer in marine environments, diatoms have been considered as promising feedstocks for their applications in functional foods, bioactive pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This review focusses on the biotechnology potential of diatoms for value-added products like carotenoids. The impact of abiotic environmental stresses, such as intensity and quality of incident light, nutrient deficiency and silicon depletion, on diatoms has been examined to determine key factors that affect the growth performance and the accumulation of valuable compounds. Previous studies suggested that adaptive evolution could be an efficient method to improve the diatom productivity of valuable compounds. Light emitting diode (LED)-based photobioreactors were introduced and proposed as a promising new technology for producing quality products from diatoms. Currently available molecular biology tools were also summarized and discussed in relation to their application in the production of carotenoids and other valuable products. Taken together, systems biology and synthetic biology approaches have the potential to address the challenges faced while working towards the industrial application of diatoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    New Biotechnology 04/2015; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nbt.2015.03.016 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Among important carotenoids for humans, β-carotene is a major source of vitamin A which is necessary for functions of the retina and has an effect on many tissue types (Amengual et al. 2011; von Lintig et al. 2005) through its action as a regulator of gene expression. In addition, β-carotene helps protect the skin against photoaging by its antioxidant activity (Darvin et al. 2011). Lutein and zeaxanthin are also of particular interest for their role in reducing the development and progression of agerelated macular degeneration (Carpentier et al. 2009; Fernandez-Sevilla et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a particularly high interest to derive carotenoids such as β-carotene and lutein from higher plants and algae for the global market. It is well known that β-carotene can be overproduced in the green microalga Dunaliella salina in response to stressful light conditions. However, little is known about the effects of light quality on carotenoid metabolism, e.g., narrow spectrum red light. In this study, we present UPLC-UV-MS data from D. salina consistent with the pathway proposed for carotenoid metabolism in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have studied the effect of red light-emitting diode (LED) lighting on growth rate and biomass yield and identified the optimal photon flux for D. salina growth. We found that the major carotenoids changed in parallel to the chlorophyll b content and that red light photon stress alone at high level was not capable of upregulating carotenoid accumulation presumably due to serious photodamage. We have found that combining red LED (75 %) with blue LED (25 %) allowed growth at a higher total photon flux. Additional blue light instead of red light led to increased β-carotene and lutein accumulation, and the application of long-term iterative stress (adaptive laboratory evolution) yielded strains of D. salina with increased accumulation of carotenoids under combined blue and red light. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4502-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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