Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio is Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Community Based Cohort: Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Area in Korean General Population Study.

Devision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 12/2010; 18(4):134-8. DOI: 10.4250/jcu.2010.18.4.134
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Albuminuria is a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction and a predictor of cardiovascular events. Data are limited with regard to the relationship between albuminuria and subclinical atherosclerosis in a community-based cohort. We determined the association between albuminuria measured by the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in a Korean rural population.
We enrolled 1,369 healthy subjects older than 40 years (857 males and 518 females) with normal renal function and measured the CIMT. We excluded subjects with overt proteinuria (> 300 mg/day) or with treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and any cardiovascular disease. The subjects were stratified into the quartile value of the UACR (lowest quartile: UACR < 4.8 and highest quartile: UACR > 17.7). And we evaluate the relationship between UACR and CIMT by linear regression and logistic regression analysis.
Increasing quartile of the UACR had a stepwise increase in body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol profile [low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride], glucose, homeostratic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (all p values < 0.001). Maximal CIMT from the 1(st) to the 4(th) quartile values of the UACR were 0.74 ± 0.17, 0.77 ± 0.18, 0.78 ± 0.18, and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, respectively (p < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, waist circumference, adiponectin, HOMA-IR, high sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking, UACR showed a significant association with maximal CIMT (B = 0.014, R(2) = 0.145, p = 0.002).
Albuminuria measured by the UACR was significantly associated with both CIMT and traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis except for smoking in healthy Koreans.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined whether low-grade albuminuria, below the conventional cut-off value for microalbuminuria, was associated with atherosclerotic vascular diseases in 8897 community-dwelling Koreans aged ≥50 years. Methods: The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated using random spot urine. Common carotid artery (CCA) intimamedia thickness (IMT) and CCA internal diameter were measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography, and carotid plaque was evaluated. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) were examined, and peripheral arterial disease was defined as ABI <0.9. Results: Youden's indices, predicting abnormal atherosclerotic conditions, were greatest at a UACR cut-off value of ∼15 mg/g, below the threshold conventionally used to define microalbuminuria. Compared with low normoalbuminuria (UACR <15.0 mg/g), CCA IMT, CCA diameter, and BaPWV were significantly greater in individuals with high normoalbuminuria (UACR 15.0-29.9 mg/g), who also had a significantly higher risk of carotid plaque than did those with low normoalbuminuria. Conclusions: Subclinical atherosclerotic vascular diseases developed at lower UACRs, below the conventional classification of microalbuminuria. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship between microalbuminuria and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 12/2012; 36(1):290-300. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low-grade albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. Our aim was to investigate the association between low-grade albuminuria and carotid atherosclerotic lesions in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 475 community-based patients with type 2 diabetes (190 males and 285 females) with normal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) (< 3.5 mg/mmol) from Shanghai, China. The subjects were stratified into tertiles based on UACR levels (the lowest tertile was UACR <= 1.19 mg/mmol, and the highest tertile was UACR >= 2 mg/mmol). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on ultrasonography. The urinary albumin excretion rate was determined as the mean of the values obtained from three separate early morning urine samples. Compared with the subjects with UACR in the lowest tertile, the subjects with UACR in the middle and highest tertiles had greater CIMT values (0.88 +/- 0.35 mm, 0.99 +/- 0.43 mm and 1.04 +/- 0.35 mm, respectively; all p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques (25.3%, 39.0% and 46.2%, respectively; all p < 0.05) after adjusting for sex and age. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses revealed that UACR tertiles were significantly associated with elevated CIMT (p = 0.007) and that, compared with the subjects in the first tertile of UACR, those in the second and third tertiles had 1.878- and 2.028-fold risk of carotid plaques, respectively. However, there was no statistical association between UACR tertile and the prevalence of carotid stenosis. Higher UACR within the normal range was independently associated with early but not late carotid atherosclerotic lesions in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. Low-grade albuminuria contributes to the risk of carotid atherosclerosis and may be used as an early marker for the detection of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 07/2013; 12(1):110. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High normal values of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) have been reported to have predictive values for hypertension, incident stroke, and higher mortality in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the association between normal ranges of UACR and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in adult population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in adults aged 45 to 74 years who were living in Namwon City, South Korea. Both common CIMTs were measured, and mean values were calculated. Normal values of UACR were defined as <30mg/g and categorized into quintiles; less than 6.50, 6.51-9.79, 9.80-13.49, 13.50-18.89, and more than 18.90 mg/g. The association between the quintiles of UACR and common CIMT was analyzed and stratified by sex. RESULTS: A total of 7555 participants (3084 men and 4471 women) with normal UACR were enrolled in the present study. Common CIMT was positively and independently associated with increasing quintiles of UACR in men and women, even after adjusting for potential confounders including age and cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to the first quintile, the fifth quintile showed odds ratios of 1.80 (95% confidence intervals, 1.26-2.55) and 1.97 (1.28-3.04) for increased CIMT (>0.9mm) in men and women, respectively. CONCLUSION: Higher UACR values within normal ranges (<30 mg/g) were positively and independently associated with CIMT in a Korean general population, suggesting that higher normal values of UACR might be a risk marker of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 09/2012; 11(1):112. · 3.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014