Three Weeks on a High-Fat Diet Increases Intrahepatic Lipid Accumulation and Decreases Metabolic Flexibility in Healthy Overweight Men
ABSTRACT In rodents, high-fat diets increase intrahepatic lipid (IHL), but human studies are scarce.
Our objective was to examine whether high-fat diets influence IHL, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), and insulin resistance.
Twenty overweight men were randomly allocated to low- or high-fat groups (age, 54.0 ± 2.3 and 56.4 ± 2.5 yr; body mass index, 29.3 ± 0.6 and 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2), respectively). Both groups started with a 3-wk low-fat diet [15% energy (En%) as protein, 65 En% as carbohydrates, 20 En% as fat], after which half of the subjects switched to a 3-wk isocaloric high-fat diet (15 En% protein, 30 En% carbohydrates, 55 En% fat). After 3 and 6 wk, IHL and IMCL content were assessed by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a muscle biopsy, and insulin sensitivity was studied using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. An additional liver scan was performed after 1 wk in the high-fat group.
IHL decreased by 13% in the low-fat group and increased by 17% in high-fat group (P = 0.047). IMCL content was unaffected (P = 0.304). Insulin sensitivity was unaffected. At wk 3, IHL correlated negatively with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.584; P = 0.009, all subjects combined). Metabolic flexibility, defined as change in respiratory quotient upon insulin stimulation, was decreased after 3 wk of the high-fat diet (change in respiratory quotient was +0.02 ± 0.02 vs. -0.05 ± 0.1 in low-fat vs. high-fat group, P = 0.009). Basal plasma glucose increased after the high-fat diet (P = 0.038). Plasma parameters insulin, free fatty acids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes and body weight were unaffected by diet.
A 3-wk high-fat diet leads to IHL accumulation and a decreased metabolic flexibility, but insulin sensitivity is unaffected.
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ABSTRACT: Elevated hepatic lipid content (IntraHepatic Lipid, IHL) increases the risk of metabolic complications. Although prolonged exercise training lowers IHL, it is unknown if acute exercise has the same effect. Furthermore, hepatic ATP content may be related to insulin resistance and IHL. We aimed to investigate if acute exercise leads to changes in IHL and whether this is accompanied by changes in hepatic ATP. Twenty-one men (age 54.8 ± 7.2 years, BMI 29.7 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) performed a 2 h cycling protocol, once while staying fasted and once while ingesting glucose. IHL was determined at baseline, 30 min post-exercise and 4 h post-exercise. Additionally ATP/Total P ratio was measured at baseline and 4 h post-exercise. Compared with baseline values we did not observe any statistically significant changes in IHL within 30 min post-exercise in neither the fasted nor the glucose-supplemented condition. However, IHL was elevated 4 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the fasted condition (from 8.3 ± 1.8 to 8.7 ± 1.8%, p = 0.010), an effect that was blunted by glucose supplementation (from 8.3 ± 1.9 to 8.3 ± 1.9%, p = 0.789). Acute exercise does not decrease liver fat in overweight middle-aged men. Moreover, IHL increased 4 h post-exercise in the fasted condition, an increase that was absent in the glucose-supplemented condition. These data suggest that a single bout of exercise may not be able to lower IHL.Scientific Reports 04/2015; 5:9709. DOI:10.1038/srep09709 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility have been implicated in the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet their interrelationship remains speculative. We investigated these interrelationships in a group of T2D and obese normoglycemic control subjects. 49 non-insulin dependent male T2D patients and 54 male control subjects were enrolled, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and indirect calorimetry were performed. A muscle biopsy was taken and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) was measured. In vivo mitochondrial function was measured by PCr recovery in 30 T2D patients and 31 control subjects. Fasting NEFA levels were significantly elevated in T2D patients compared with controls, but IMCL was not different. Mitochondrial function in T2D patients was compromised by 12.5% (p<0.01). Whole body glucose disposal (WGD) was higher at baseline and lower after insulin stimulation. Metabolic flexibility (ΔRER) was lower in the type 2 diabetic patients (0.050±0.033 vs. 0.093±0.050, p<0.01). Mitochondrial function was the sole predictor of basal respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (R(2) = 0.18, p<0.05); whereas WGD predicted both insulin-stimulated RER (R(2) = 0.29, p<0.001) and metabolic flexibility (R(2) = 0.40, p<0.001). These results indicate that defects in skeletal muscle in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic patients are only reflected in basal substrate oxidation and highlight the importance of glucose disposal rate as a determinant of substrate utilization in response to insulin.PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e51648. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051648 · 3.53 Impact Factor