Integrated genomic analysis of nodular tissue in macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia: progression of tumorigenesis in a disorder associated with multiple benign lesions.
ABSTRACT Massive macronodular adrenocortical disease or ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder.
Whole-genome expression profiling and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization changes were analyzed in samples of different nodules from the same patients with AIMAH. Quantitative RT-PCR and staining were employed to validate the mRNA array data.
Chromosomal gains were more frequent in larger nodules when compared with smaller nodules from the same patients. Among the 50 most overexpressed genes, 50% had a chromosomal locus that was amplified in the comparative genomic hybridization data. Although the list of most over- and underexpressed genes was similar between the nodules of different size, the gene set enrichment analysis identified different pathways associated with AIMAH that corresponded to the size; the smaller nodules were mainly enriched for metabolic pathways, whereas p53 signaling and cancer genes were enriched in larger nodules. Confirmatory studies demonstrated that BCL2, E2F1, EGF, c-KIT, MYB, PRKCA, and CTNNB1 were overexpressed in the larger nodules at messenger and/or protein levels. Chromosomal enrichment analysis showed that chromosomes 20q13 and 14q23 might be involved in progression of AIMAH from smaller to larger tumors.
Integrated transcriptomic and genomic data for AIMAH provides supporting evidence to the hypothesis that larger adrenal lesions, in the context of this chronic, polyclonal hyperplasia, accumulate an increased number of genomic and, subsequently, transcript abnormalities. The latter shows that the disease appears to start with mainly tissue metabolic derangements, as suggested by the study of the smaller nodules, but larger lesions showed aberrant expression of oncogenic pathways.
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ABSTRACT: All tools in the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources aim to provide functional interpretation of large lists of genes derived from genomic studies. The newly updated DAVID Bioinformatics Resources consists of the DAVID Knowledgebase and five integrated, web-based functional annotation tool suites: the DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool, the DAVID Functional Annotation Tool, the DAVID Gene ID Conversion Tool, the DAVID Gene Name Viewer and the DAVID NIAID Pathogen Genome Browser. The expanded DAVID Knowledgebase now integrates almost all major and well-known public bioinformatics resources centralized by the DAVID Gene Concept, a single-linkage method to agglomerate tens of millions of diverse gene/protein identifiers and annotation terms from a variety of public bioinformatics databases. For any uploaded gene list, the DAVID Resources now provides not only the typical gene-term enrichment analysis, but also new tools and functions that allow users to condense large gene lists into gene functional groups, convert between gene/protein identifiers, visualize many-genes-to-many-terms relationships, cluster redundant and heterogeneous terms into groups, search for interesting and related genes or terms, dynamically view genes from their lists on bio-pathways and more. With DAVID (http://david.niaid.nih.gov), investigators gain more power to interpret the biological mechanisms associated with large gene lists.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2007; 35(Web Server issue):W169-75. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which cortisol is produced in adrenal Cushing's syndrome, when ACTH is suppressed, was previously unknown and was referred to as being "autonomous." More recently, several investigators have shown that some cortisol and other steroid-producing adrenal tumors or hyperplasias are under the control of ectopic (or aberrant, illicit, inappropriate) membrane hormone receptors. These include ectopic receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), beta-adrenergic agonists, or LH/hCG; a similar outcome can result from altered activity of eutopic receptors, such as those for vasopressin (V1-AVPR), serotonin (5-HT4), or possibly leptin. The presence of aberrant receptors places adrenal cells under stimulation by a trophic factor not negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, leading to increased steroidogenesis and possibly to the proliferative phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal expression and function of membrane hormone receptors are still largely unknown. Identification of the presence of these illicit receptors can eventually lead to new pharmacological therapies as alternatives to adrenalectomy, now demonstrated by the long-term control of ectopic P-AR- and LH/hCGR-dependent Cushing's syndrome by propanolol and leuprolide acetate. Further studies will potentially identify a larger diversity of hormone receptors capable of coupling to G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, and steroidogenesis in functional adrenal tumors and probably in other endocrine and nonendocrine tumors.Endocrine Reviews 03/2001; 22(1):75-110. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aberrant adrenal expression and function of one or several G-protein coupled receptors can lead to cell proliferation and abnormal regulation of steroidogenesis in unilateral adenomas, carcinomas or in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH). Excess cortisol secretion leading to either sub-clinical or overt Cushing's syndrome is the most prevalent phenotype reported to date. In a few patients, aberrant regulation of androgen excess has been reported. More recently, initial studies suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in the renin-independent regulation of aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism. In recent years, cases of familial AIMAH have been identified, and specific aberrant hormone receptors are functional in the adrenal of affected members. The identification of aberrant receptors can offer specific pharmacological approach to prevent disease progression and control abnormal steroidogenesis; alternatively, unilateral or bilateral adrenalectomy remains the treatment of choice.Clinical Endocrinology 09/2009; 73(1):1-15. · 3.40 Impact Factor