Notch signaling regulates smooth muscle differentiation of epicardium-derived cells.
ABSTRACT The embryonic epicardium plays a crucial role in the formation of the coronary vasculature and in myocardial development, yet the exact contribution of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) to the vascular and connective tissue of the heart, and the factors that regulate epicardial differentiation, are insufficiently understood.
To define the role of Notch signaling in murine epicardial development.
Using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR analyses, we detected expression of a number of Notch receptor and ligand genes in early epicardial development, as well as during formation of coronary arteries. Mice with epicardial deletion of Rbpj, the unique intracellular mediator of Notch signaling, survived to adulthood and exhibited enlarged coronary venous and arterial beds. Using a Tbx18-based genetic lineage tracing system, we show that EPDCs give rise to fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) but not to endothelial cells in the wild type, whereas in Rbpj-deficient embryos EPDCs form and surround the developing arteries but fail to differentiate into SMCs. Conditional activation of Notch signaling results in premature SMC differentiation of epicardial cells and prevents coronary angiogenesis. We further show that Notch signaling regulates, and cooperates with transforming growth factor β signaling in SM differentiation of EPDCs.
Notch signaling is a crucial regulator of SM differentiation of EPDCs, and thus, of formation of a functional coronary system.
- SourceAvailable from: Julian Markovich Rozenberg[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to identify novel mechanisms that regulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation marker gene expression.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; · 5.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Lineage segregation from multipotent epithelia is a central theme in development and in adult stem cell plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that striated and smooth muscle cells share a common progenitor within their epithelium of origin, the lateral domain of the somite-derived dermomyotome. However, what controls the segregation of these muscle subtypes remains unknown. We use this in vivo bifurcation of fates as an experimental model to uncover the underlying mechanisms of lineage diversification from bipotent progenitors.ResultsUsing the strength of spatio-temporally controlled gene missexpression in avian embryos, we report that Notch harbors distinct pro-smooth muscle activities depending on the duration of the signal; short periods prevent striated muscle development and extended periods, through Snail1, promote cell emigration from the dermomyotome towards a smooth muscle fate. Furthermore, we define a Muscle Regulatory Network, consisting of Id2, Id3, FoxC2 and Snail1, which acts in concert to promote smooth muscle by antagonizing the pro-myogenic activities of Myf5 and Pax7, which induce striated muscle fate. Notch and BMP closely regulate the network and reciprocally reinforce each other¿s signal. In turn, components of the network strengthen Notch signaling, while Pax7 silences this signaling. These feedbacks augment the robustness and flexibility of the network regulating muscle subtype segregation.Conclusions Our results demarcate the details of the Muscle Regulatory Network, underlying the segregation of muscle sublineages from the lateral dermomyotome, and exhibit how factors within the network promote the smooth muscle at the expense of the striated muscle fate. This network acts as an exemplar demonstrating how lineage segregation occurs within epithelial primordia by integrating inputs from competing factors.BMC Biology 07/2014; 12(1):53. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mesothelium, the lining of the coelomic cavities, and the urothelium, the inner lining of the urinary drainage system, are highly specialized epithelia that protect the underlying tissues from mechanical stress and seal them from the overlying fluid space. The development of these epithelia from simple precursors and the molecular characteristics of the mature tissues are poorly analyzed. Here, we show that uroplakin 3B (Upk3b), which encodes an integral membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, is specifically expressed both in development as well as under homeostatic conditions in adult mice in the mesothelia of the body cavities, i.e., the epicardium and pericardium, the pleura and the peritoneum, and in the urothelium of the urinary tract. To analyze Upk3b function, we generated a creERT2 knock-in allele by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. We show that Upk3bcreERT2 represents a null allele despite the lack of creERT2 expression from the mutated locus. Morphological, histological and molecular analyses of Upk3b-deficient mice did not detect changes in differentiation or integrity of the urothelium and the mesothelia that cover internal organs. Upk3b is coexpressed with the closely related Upk3a gene in the urothelium but not in the mesothelium, leaving the possibility of a functional redundancy between the two genes in the urothelium only.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112112. · 3.53 Impact Factor