Factor VIIa bound to endothelial cell protein C receptor activates protease activated receptor-1 and mediates cell signaling and barrier protection.

Center for Biomedical Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 01/2011; 117(11):3199-208. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-310706
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), a cellular receptor for protein C and activated protein C, but the physiologic significance of this interaction is unclear. In the present study, we show that FVIIa, upon binding to EPCR on endothelial cells, activates endogenous protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and induces PAR1-mediated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Pretreatment of endothelial cells with FVIIa protected against thrombin-induced barrier disruption. This FVIIa-induced, barrier-protective effect was EPCR dependent and did not involve PAR2. Pretreatment of confluent endothelial monolayers with FVIIa before thrombin reduced the development of thrombin-induced transcellular actin stress fibers, cellular contractions, and paracellular gap formation. FVIIa-induced p44/42 MAPK activation and the barrier-protective effect are mediated via Rac1 activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, in vivo studies using mice showed that administration of FVIIa before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment attenuated LPS-induced vascular leakage in the lung and kidney. Overall, our present data provide evidence that FVIIa bound to EPCR on endothelial cells activates PAR1-mediated cell signaling and provides a barrier-protective effect. These findings are novel and of great clinical significance, because FVIIa is used clinically for the prevention of bleeding in hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.

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    ABSTRACT: The protein C pathway provides multiple important functions to maintain a regulated balance between hemostasis and host defense systems in response to vascular and inflammatory injury. The anticoagulant protein C pathway is designed to regulate coagulation, maintain the fluidity of blood within the vasculature, and prevent thrombosis, whereas the cytoprotective protein C pathway prevents vascular damage and stress. The cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) include anti-apoptotic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, beneficial alterations of gene expression profiles, and endothelial barrier stabilization. These cytoprotective activities of APC, which require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), have been a major research focus. Recent insights, such as non-canonical activation of PAR1 at Arg46 by APC and biased PAR1 signaling, provided better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which APC elicits cytoprotective signaling through cleavage of PAR1. The discovery and development of anticoagulant-selective and cytoprotective-selective APC mutants provided unique opportunities for preclinical research that has been and may continue to be translated to clinical research. New mechanisms for the regulation of EPCR functionality, such as modulation of EPCR-bound lipids that affect APC's cytoprotective activities, may provide new research directions to improve the efficacy of APC to convey its cytoprotective activities to cells. Moreover, emerging novel functions for EPCR expand the roles of EPCR beyond mediating protein C activation and APC-induced PAR1 cleavage. These discoveries increasingly develop our understanding of the protein C pathway, which will conceivably expand its physiological implications to many areas in the future.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 11(s1). · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant activated human Factor VII (rhFVIIa) is an established hemostatic agent in hemophilia but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Although tissue factor (TF) is its natural receptor, rhFVIIa also interacts with the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) through its γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain with unknown hemostatic consequences in vivo. Here, we study whether EPCR facilitates rhFVIIa hemostasis in hemophilia using a mouse model system. Mouse activated FVII (mFVIIa) is functionally homologous to rhFVIIa, but binds poorly to mouse EPCR (mEPCR). We modified mFVIIa to gain mEPCR binding using 3 amino acid changes in its Gla-domain. The resulting molecule mFVIIa-FMR specifically bound mEPCR in vitro and in vivo and was identical to mFVIIa with respect to TF affinity and procoagulant functions. In macrovascular injury models in hemophilic mice, administered mFVIIa-FMR exhibited superior hemostatic activity compared to mFVIIa. This was abolished by blocking mEPCR and was absent in ex vivo whole blood coagulation assays, implicating a specific mFVIIa-FMR and endothelial mEPCR interaction. Since mFVIIa-FMR models the TF-dependent as well as EPCR binding properties of rhFVIIa, our data unmask a novel contribution of EPCR on the action of rhFVIIa administration in hemophilia, prompting the rational design of improved and safer rhFVIIa therapeutics.
    Blood 06/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that antithrombin (AT) could act as a significant physiologic regulator of FVIIa. However, in vitro studies showed that AT could inhibit FVIIa effectively only when it was bound to tissue factor (TF). Circulating blood is known to contain only traces of TF, at best. FVIIa also binds endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), but the role of EPCR on FVIIa inactivation by AT is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of TF and EPCR in inactivation of FVIIa by AT in vivo. Low human TF mice (low TF, ∼1% expression of the mouse TF level) and high human TF mice (HTF, ∼100% of the mouse TF level) were injected with human rFVIIa (120 µg kg-1 body weight) via the tail vein. At varying time intervals following rFVIIa administration, blood was collected to measure FVIIa-AT complex and rFVIIa antigen levels in the plasma. Despite the large difference in TF expression in the mice, HTF mice generated only 40-50% more of FVIIa-AT complex as compared to low TF mice. Increasing the concentration of TF in vivo in HTF mice by LPS injection increased the levels of FVIIa-AT complexes by about 25%. No significant differences were found in FVIIa-AT levels among wild-type, EPCR-deficient, and EPCR-overexpressing mice. The levels of FVIIa-AT complex formed in vitro and ex vivo were much lower than that was found in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that traces of TF that may be present in circulating blood or extravascular TF that is transiently exposed during normal vessel damage contributes to inactivation of FVIIa by AT in circulation. However, TF's role in AT inactivation of FVIIa appears to be minor and other factor(s) present in plasma, on blood cells or vascular endothelium may play a predominant role in this process.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103505. · 3.53 Impact Factor


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May 22, 2014

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