PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats.
ABSTRACT Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain heart function. The results indicate PFOS prenatal exposure can induce cardiac mitochondrial injury and gene transcript change, which may be a significant mechanism of the developmental toxicity of PFOS to rat.
- Environmental Science and Technology 05/2001; 35(7):154A-160A. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here we report, for the first time, on the global distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a fluorinated organic contaminant. PFOS was measured in the tissues of wildlife, including, fish, birds, and marine mammals. Some of the species studied include bald eagles, polar bears, albatrosses, and various species of seals. Samples were collected from urbanized areas in North America, especially the Great Lakes region and coastal marine areas and rivers, and Europe. Samples were also collected from a number of more remote, less urbanized locations such as the Arctic and the North Pacific Oceans. The results demonstrated that PFOS is widespread in the environment. Concentrations of PFOS in animals from relatively more populated and industrialized regions, such as the North American Great Lakes, Baltic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea,were greaterthan those in animals from remote marine locations. Fish-eating, predatory animals such as mink and bald eagles contained concentrations of PFOS that were greater than the concentrations in their diets. This suggests that PFOS can bioaccumulate to higher trophic levels of the food chain. Currently available data indicate that the concentrations of PFOS in wildlife are less than those required to cause adverse effects in laboratory animals.Environmental Science and Technology 05/2001; 35(7):1339-42. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are thought to induce peroxisome proliferation and interfere with mitochondrial metabolic pathways. Direct measurements revealed that PFOA and the unsubstituted sulfonamide of perfluorooctane (FOSA) uncouple mitochondrial respiration by increasing proton conductance. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize structural determinants responsible for the mitochondrial uncoupling effect of several structurally related fluorochemicals. Included in the study were PFOA, PFOS, FOSA, the N-acetate of FOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, FOSAA), N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), and the N-ethyl alcohol [2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl alcohol, N-EtFOSE] and N-acetic acid (N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, N-EtFOSAA) of N-EtFOSA. Each test compound was dissolved in ethanol and added directly to an incubation medium containing substrate-energized rat liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential were measured concurrently using an oxygen electrode and a TPP+ -selective electrode, respectively. All of the compounds tested, at sufficiently high concentrations, had the capacity to interfere with mitochondrial respiration, albeit via different mechanisms and with varying potencies. At sufficiently high concentrations, the free acids PFOA and PFOS caused a slight increase in the intrinsic proton leak of the mitochondrial inner membrane, which resembled a surfactant-like change in membrane fluidity. Similar effects were observed with the sulfonamide N-EtFOSE. Another fully substituted sulfonamide, N-EtFOSAA, at high concentrations caused inhibition of respiration, the release of cytochrome c, and high-amplitude swelling of mitochondria. The swelling was prevented by cyclosporin A or by EGTA, indicating that this compound induced the mitochondrial permeability transition. The unsubstituted and mono-substituted amides FOSA, N-EtFOSA, and FOSAA all exerted a strong uncoupling effect on mitochondria resembling that of protonophoric uncouplers. Among these compounds, FOSA was a very potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, with an IC50 of approximately 1 microM. These data suggest that the protonated nitrogen atom with a favorable pKa is essential for the uncoupling action of perfluorooctane sulfonamides in mitochondria, which may be critical to the mechanism by which these compounds interfere with mitochondrial metabolism to induce peroxisome proliferation in vivo.Toxicological Sciences 05/2002; 66(2):244-52. · 4.33 Impact Factor