Novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) and insulin resistance (IRAR) indexes are useful integrated diagnostic biomarkers for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a case control study.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Cardiovascular Diabetology (Impact Factor: 3.71). 01/2011; 10(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to provide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity.
In this case control study, anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters including fasting serum total adiponectin and resistin levels were determined in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40-70 years old. Significant differences in continuous variables among subject groups were confirmed by ANCOVA or MANCOVA test using 1,000 stratified bootstrap samples with bias corrected and accelerated (BCa) 95% CI. Spearman's rho rank correlation test was used to test the correlation between two variables.
The AR index was formulated as 1+log10(R0)-log10(A0). The AR index was more strongly associated with increased risk of T2DM and MS than hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia alone. The AR index was more strongly correlated with the insulin resistance indexes and key metabolic endpoints of T2DM and MS than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The AR index was also correlated with a higher number of MS components than adiponectin and resistin levels alone. The IRAR index was formulated as log10(I0G0)+log10(I0G0)log10(R0/A0). The normal reference range of the IRAR index for insulin sensitive individuals was between 3.265 and 3.538. The minimum cut-off values of the IRAR index for insulin resistance assessment were between 3.538 and 3.955.
The novel AR and IRAR indexes are cost-effective, precise, reproducible and reliable integrated diagnostic biomarkers of insulin sensitivity for screening subjects with increased risk of future development of T2DM and MS.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims This study was designed to investigate the relationship between 8 selected adipokines (leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, agouti-related peptide, omentin, visfatin, adipsin and resistin), dietary composition and anthropometric parameters found in the Central European obese population. Methods A total of 65 unrelated obese Central European Caucasian individuals were recruited for the study. Phenotypic measurements included weight, height, BMI, lean body mass, fat mass, body fat, waist and hip circumference, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness. Participants completed standardized self-reported 7-day food records. Plasma levels of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), resistin, adipsin, omentin and visfatin were examined using ELISA. Results Multiple associations (weight, height, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and sum of skinfold thickness) with the circulation levels of the investigated adipokines were identified. Leptin-Leptin receptor (L-LR) levels were found to correlate with total energy intake and macronutrients while adipsin was found to strongly correlate with multiple adipokines. Furthermore, the L-LR index was found to constitute a more accurate description of the relationship between BMI and body weight than individual measurements and the Ag-LR index was found to strongly correlate with both anthropometric and dietary characteristics. Conclusion Following confirmation on larger population samples and on samples of different ethnicities, the reported adipokine indexes could become a useful tool for estimating nutritional status and predicting the body composition of specific patient groups.
    Eating Behaviors 04/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Insulin resistance (IR) is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by the increase in storage and irregular body fat distribution, and impaired production of adipokines. Objective: The objective was to investigate the relationship between 3'UTR+62G>A RETN gene polymorphism, with adiponectin-resistin index (ARindex), adiposity, and inmuno-metabolic markers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 260 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified in lean and overweight, and IR and without-IR, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution and inflammation and metabolic markers were measured by routine methods, RETN 3'UTR+62G>A alleles were identified by PCR-RFLP and soluble insulin, total adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA methods. Results: The +62G allele frequencies for lean and overweight individuals were different P=0.0343 (95.4% and 98.4%, respectively). The lean GA genotype carriers showed significant low measures of ARindex, adiposity, and inmuno-metabolic markers, than the GG genotype carriers. We found differences between individuals with IR and without-IR: in ARindex (P=0.002), adiponectin (P=0.002) and resistin levels (P=0.033): 1.102 ± 0.03, 5.167 ± 0.36ug/mL and 8.827 ± 0.42ng/mL versus 1.336 ± 0.07, 3.577 ± 0.34ug/mL and 10.480 ± 0.65ng/mL. Showed correlations with inflammation markers, distribution and body fat storage (r=0.262 to 0.414), PA polymorphism is associated with overweight. The presence of the +62A allele was associated with increase of total adiponectin, ARindex, resistin levels, metabolic markers and body fat storage. ARindex can be an early indicator of insulin resistance.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 28(6):1867-76. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: India has the highest burden of acute coronary syndromes worldwide. Apart from certain lipid alterations that have been established to be definite risk factors, low level of adiponectin, high levels of resistin, and IL-6 have been shown to be risk factors for cardiovascular events. Insulin resistance is also a significant predictor of poor outcome in patients admitted with ACS.
    Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]. 09/2014;


Available from