Article

Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy of kidney disease in HIV-infected patients.

University of Louisville, Division of Nephrology, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 3.09). 04/2011; 12(5):691-704. DOI: 10.1517/14656566.2011.535518
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the development of a wide spectrum of kidney diseases. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected individuals and predominantly affects patients of African ancestry. HIVAN is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among African-Americans. AREAS COVERED: An overview of the spectrum of kidney disease in patients with HIV is given. Current pharmacologic interventions to treat kidney disease in HIV are discussed. This review will enhance knowledge regarding the most common causes of kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. An understanding of the principles related to pharmacotherapy in HIV-infected patients with kidney disease will also be gained. EXPERT OPINION: Kidney disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease in this population is HIV-associated nephropathy, which is caused by viral infection of the renal epithelium. Several medications that are commonly used in HIV-infected patients can have adverse effects on the kidneys and the doses of many antiretroviral medications need to be adjusted in patients with impaired renal function.

1 Follower
 · 
156 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal disease accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of end stage renal disease in this population. Although multiple genetic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics such as Apolipoproetin-1 genetic polymorphism, high viral load, low CD-4 count, nephrotic range proteinuria, and increased renal echogenicity on ultrasound are predictive of HIVAN, kidney biopsy remains the gold standard to make the definitive diagnosis. Current treatment options for HIVAN include initiation of combined active antiretroviral therapy, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, and steroids. In patients with progression of HIVAN, renal transplant should be pursued as long as their systemic HIV infection is controlled.
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 03/2014; DOI:10.1586/14787210.2014.901170 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to review recent literature on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and immune suppression as risk factors for renal impairment in HIV-positive persons, and to discuss pending research questions within this field. Several individual antiretroviral agents (ARVs) including tenofovir and several protease inhibitors have, in diverse study settings, been associated with renal impairment. Traditional renal risk factors are common among those experiencing adverse renal impairment to ARVs, but do not fully explain why only some develop these effects. Discontinuation of nephrotoxic ARVs is common with declining renal function, but has unknown long-term consequences. Immune suppression is a strong independent risk factor for renal impairment, and ongoing investigations will clarify whether initiating ARVs with nephrotoxic properties at higher CD4 cell counts will have net beneficial effects on renal function. With improvements in survival, multiple risk factors have emerged for renal impairment in HIV-positive persons. Although certain ARVs may cause moderate renal impairment, effects on more severe renal impairment remain unresolved. Regular renal function monitoring allow for switching away from nephrotoxic ARVs in case of decreasing function. If such actions prove beneficial higher prevalence of ARV-associated severe renal impairment may emerge in populations without access to regular monitoring.
    Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000023 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-related kidney disease has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the HIV population. It is clear that the epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease has changed dramatically since the first case reports in 1984. During these early years, the predominant etiology of kidney disease in HIV was recognized as HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), an aggressive form of kidney disease with a high rate of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subsequently, with the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there was a dramatic decrease in the incidence of ESRD attributed to HIV/AIDS. Although the incidence of HIV-related ESRD has plateaued in the last 15 years, the prevalence has continued to increase because of improved survival. Available prevalence estimates do not include HIV-infected individuals with comorbid ESRD, although there is growing evidence that the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV-infected population has changed. This article reviews the impact of risk factors such as race, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the chronic use of cART on the changing epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease. Additionally in this review, we propose potential areas of translational research that will help to further characterize HIV-related kidney disease in the 21(st) century.

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from