Improvement of the quality of wheat bread by addition of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases.
ABSTRACT Although many xylanases are widely used in the baking industry, only one glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase has previously been reported to be effective in baking. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two GH 10 xylanases, psychrophilic XynA from Glaciecola mesophila and mesophilic EX1 from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, in bread making. The optimal dosages needed to improve wheat flour dough and bread quality were 270-U/kg flour for EX1 and 0.9-U/kg flour for XynA. At their optimal dosage, both XynA and EX1 had significant dough-softening ability, resulting in a 50% reduction in Brabender units. XynA was more effective than EX1 in reducing the time to reach maximum consistency. XynA and EX1 showed similar effects in improving the bread volume (~30% increase). EX1 was more effective in reducing the initial crumb firmness. Although both enzymes exhibited similar anti-staling effects on the bread, based on a decrease in the bread firmness, XynA had a greater effect on reducing the firming rate, and EX1 showed an enhanced reduction in the initial firmness. These results show that these two GH 10 xylanases have unique advantages in improving dough and bread quality and indicate their potential in bread making.
SourceAvailable from: Bianca Waruar Paulo LoboFood Industry, Edited by Innocenzo Muzzalupo, 01/2013: chapter 14. Enzymes in Bakery: Current and Future Trends: pages 287-321; InTech.
Article: Bread Staling: Updating the View[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Staling of bread is cause of significant product waste in the world. We reviewed the literature of the last 10 y with the aim to give an up-to-date overview on processing/storage parameters, antistaling ingredients, sourdough technology, and measurement methods of the staling phenomenon. Many researchers have been focusing their interest on the selection of ingredients able to retard staling, mainly hydrocolloids, waxy wheat flours (WWF), and enzymes, but different efforts have been made to understand the molecular basis of bread staling with the help of various measurement methods. Results obtained confirm the central role of amylopectin retrogradation and water redistribution within the different polymers in determining bread staling, but highlighted also the importance of other flour constituents, such as proteins and nonstarch polysaccharides. Data obtained with thermal, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, and colorimetry analysis have pointed out the need to encourage the use of one or more of these techniques in order to better understand the mechanisms of staling. Results so far obtained have provided new insight on bread staling, but the phenomenon has not been fully elucidated so far.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2014; 13(4-4):473-492. DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12064 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Xylanase can replace chemical additives to improve the volume and sensory properties of bread in the baking. Suitable baking xylanase with improved yield will promote the application of xylanase in baking industry. The xylanase XYNZG from the Plectosphaerella cucumerina has been previously characterized by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. However, P. pastoris is not a suitable host for xylanase to be used in the baking process since P. pastoris does not have GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and requires large methanol supplement during the fermentation in most conditions, which is not allowed to be used in the food industry. Kluyveromyces lactis, as another yeast expression host, has a GRAS status, which has been successfully used in food and feed applications. No previous work has been reported concerning the heterologous expression of xylanase gene xynZG in K. lactis with an aim for application in baking.ResultsThe xylanase gene xynZG from the P. cucumerina was heterologously expressed in K. lactis. The recombinant protein XYNZG in K. lactis presented an approximately 19 kDa band on SDS-PAGE and zymograms analysis. Transformant with the highest halo on the plate containing the RBB-xylan (Remazol Brilliant Blue-xylan) was selected for the flask fermentation in different media. The results indicated that the highest activity of 115 U/ml at 72 h was obtained with the YLPU medium. The mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the hydrolytic products of xylan by XYNZG were mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. The results of baking trials indicated that the addition of XYNZG could reduce the kneading time of dough, increase the volume of bread, improve the texture, and have more positive effects on the sensory properties of bread.Conclusions Xylanase XYNZG is successfully expressed in K. lactis, which exhibits the highest activity among the published reports of the xylanase expression in K. lactis. The recombinant XYNZG can be used to improve the volume and sensory properties of bread. Therefore, the expression yield of recombinant XYNZG can be further improved through engineered strain containing high copy numbers of the XYNZG, and optimized fermentation condition, making bread-baking application possible.BMC Biotechnology 12/2014; 14(1):107. DOI:10.1186/s12896-014-0107-7 · 2.59 Impact Factor