Increasing incidence of ischemic stroke in patients with HIV infection

Stroke Center and Department of Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 200 West Arbor Drive, MC 8466, San Diego, CA 92103-8466, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 02/2011; 76(5):444-50. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820a0cfc
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Large-scale epidemiologic data on stroke in HIV-infected persons are scarce, especially in an era of combination antiretroviral therapies, which have prolonged patient survival, but may boost stroke risk. We assessed trends in the proportion of HIV infection among patients with stroke in the United States.
Data were obtained from all states within the United States that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 2006 with a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke (identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes) were included. Time trends in the proportion of these patients with HIV diagnosis were computed, and independent predictors of comorbid HIV diagnosis evaluated using multivariable logistic regression.
Of all (ischemic and hemorrhagic) stroke hospitalizations, patients with comorbid HIV infection constituted 0.09% in 1997 vs 0.15% in 2006 (p < 0.0001). Actual numbers of overall US stroke hospitalizations lessened 7% (998,739 to 926,997), while actual numbers of stroke hospitalizations with coexisting HIV infection rose 60% (888 to 1,425). Patients with comorbid HIV infection comprised 0.08% of ischemic strokes in 1997 vs 0.18% in 2006 (p < 0.0001), but their proportion of hemorrhagic strokes did not significantly change. Factors independently associated with higher odds of comorbid HIV diagnosis were Medicaid insurance, urban hospital type, dementia, liver disease, renal disease, and cancer.
Over the last decade in the United States, there has been a substantial and significant rise in patients hospitalized for stroke with coexisting HIV infection. This has important public health and socioeconomic consequences.

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    ABSTRACT: : With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV is becoming a chronic disease. HIV-seropositive (+) patients on ART can expect to live longer and, as a result, they are at risk of developing chronic noncommunicable diseases related to factors, such as aging, lifestyle, long-term HIV infection, and the potential adverse effects of ART. Although data are incomplete, evidence suggests that even in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases are increasing in HIV-positive patients. This review summarizes evidence-linking HIV infection to the most commonly cited chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions in LMICs: heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction, stroke, obstructive lung diseases, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. We describe the observed epidemiology of these conditions, factors affecting expression in LMICs, and key populations that may be at higher risk (ie, illicit drug users and children), and finally, we suggest that strategic areas of research and training intended to counter these conditions effectively. As access to ART in LMICs increases, long-term outcomes among HIV-positive persons will increasingly be determined by a range of associated chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. Actions taken now to identify those conditions that contribute to long-term morbidity and mortality optimize early recognition and diagnosis and implement effective prevention strategies and/or disease interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on limiting cardiovascular and pulmonary disease comorbidity and improving population health among HIV-positive patients in LMICs.
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    ABSTRACT: With the aging of HIV populations, vascular contributions to neuropathogenesis are increasingly important. Indirect analyses of cerebral small vessel disease have been performed, but there have been no direct studies of human brain to elucidate risk factors for arteriolar sclerosis.
    10/2014; 1(3):e27. DOI:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000027
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose/Aim Cerebrovascular events (CVE) in HIV infected patients have become an increasingly relevant neurological complication. Data about the prevalence and clinical features of CVE in HIV infected patients since the introduction of combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART) are rare. Methods A retrospective study of HIV-infected patients with a CVE was performed from 2002-2011. During this time period 3203 HIV-infected patients were admitted to the University hospital of Muenster, Germany. All patients had access to regular and long term treatment with cART. The clinical features were analyzed and the prevalence of ischemic stroke (IS), transient ischemic attack (TIA) and intracerebral bleeding (ICB) was calculated. Results The total prevalence of all CVE was at 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) (0.4% for IS (95% CI: 0.2, 0.6), 0.2% for TIA (95% CI: 0.0, 0.3) and 0.1% for ICB (95% CI: 0.0, 0.2)) and the crude annual incidence rate at 59 per 100.000 for all events. The median CD4 cell count was 405/μl (25(th) to 75(th) percentile: 251-568). The majority of patients had AIDS. The median age was at 49 years (25(th) to 75(th) percentile: 40-69). Some events were associated with HIV-associated vasculopathy or viral co-infections. Most patients presented with multiple vascular risk factors. Conclusion The study confirms that CVE occur in HIV-infected patients with a good immune status and at a young age. HIV infection has to be considered in young stroke patients. The rate of CVE in this study was constant when comparing to the pre-cART era. HIV associated vasculopathy and viral co-infections need to be considered in the diagnostics of stroke.
    International Journal of Neuroscience 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/00207454.2014.956870 · 1.53 Impact Factor


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