This study aimed to determine whether aging negatively affects MSC replication and osteogenesis and whether these features could be altered by exposure to an extracellular matrix (ECM) generated by marrow cells from young or old mice. A cell-free ECM was prepared from cultured femoral marrow cells from either 3- or 18-mo-old C57BL/6 mice (young-ECM or old-ECM, respectively). The replication and osteogenesis of young or old MSCs maintained on young-ECM vs. old-ECM as well as plastic were examined in vitro and in vivo. We found that the frequency of MSCs in marrow from old mice, measured by colony-forming cells, was only marginally lower than that of young mice. In contrast, defects in the self-renewal and bone formation capacity of old MSCs were remarkable. These defects were corrected by provision of a young-ECM but not old-ECM. In parallel cultures maintained on a young-ECM, the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species from both old and young mice were reduced 30-50% compared to those maintained on old-ECM or plastic. We concluded that aging negatively affects the formation of an ECM that normally preserves MSC function, and aged MSCs can be rejuvenated by culture on a young-ECM.
"For example, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived ECMs preserve the stem cell niche, which maintains the long-term re-population ability of hematopoietic stem cells . In addition, ECMs derived from " young " stem cells (i.e., MSCs isolated from young donors) can rejuvenate aged progenitor cells, indicating the importance of niche properties during tissue aging and regeneration . These native cell-derived ECMs become the unique biomaterials that can serve as the substrates, scaffolds, growth factor carriers, and even the bioinks in 3-D printing for various in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation studies   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrices (ECM) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique tissue microenvironment that can direct cellular differentiation and tissue regeneration, and rejuvenate aged progenitor cells. The unlimited growth capacity of PSCs allows for the scalable generation of PSC-secreted ECMs. Therefore, the derivation and characterization of PSC-derived ECMs is of critical importance in drug screening, disease modeling and tissue regeneration. In this study, 3-D ECMs were generated from decellularized undifferentiated embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates (AGG), spontaneously differentiated embryoid bodies (EB), and ESC-derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) aggregates. The capacities of different ECMs to direct proliferation and neural differentiation of the reseeded mouse ESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were characterized. Proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed protein expression profiles that reflected distinct niche properties for each tested ECM group. The reseeded mouse ESCs and human iPSCs responded to different types of ECMs with different cellular phenotypes. Cells grown on the AGG-ECM displayed high levels of pluripotent markers Oct-4 and Nanog, while the cells grown on the NPC-ECM showed increased expression of neural marker β-tubulin III. The expression levels of β-catenin were high for cells grown on the AGG-ECM and the EB-ECM, but reduced in cells grown on the NPC-ECM, indicating a possible role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the cell-matrix interactions. This study demonstrates that PSC-derived ECMs can influence stem cell fate decisions by providing a spectrum of stem cell niche microenvironments during tissue development.
"The aging process itself has been associated with defective ECM production. For example, the reduced self-renewal and bone formation capacity of aged mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was corrected by culturing them on ECM from young MSCs (Sun et al. 2011). In analogy to that, proliferative defects of mouse adult fibroblasts harboring HGPS-linked Lmna mutation were rescued upon growth on ECM derived from wild-type cells (Hernandez et al. 2010). "
"In contrast, bone formation capacity of cells expanded on tissue culture plastic was dramatically diminished after 6e7 passages. Also, Sun et al. has shown that culturing freshly isolated human bone marrow mononuclear cells on stromal cell-derived extracellular matrix enhances the formation of colonies comprised of either osteoblast-like, fibroblast-like, or adiopcyte-like cells . In addition, they also showed that culturing late-passage MSCs on fresh ECM recovered or at least retained the desired properties in these older cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-scale expansion of highly functional adult human mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) remains technologically challenging as aMSCs lose self renewal capacity and multipotency during traditional long-term culture and their quality/quantity declines with donor age and disease. Identification of culture conditions enabling prolonged expansion and rejuvenation would have dramatic impact in regenerative medicine. aMSC-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to provide such microenvironment which promotes MSC self renewal and "stemness". Since previous studies have demonstrated superior proliferation and osteogenic potential of human fetal MSCs (fMSCs), we hypothesize that their ECM may promote expansion of clinically relevant aMSCs. We demonstrated that aMSCs were more proliferative (∼1.6×) on fMSC-derived ECM than aMSC-derived ECMs and traditional tissue culture wares (TCPS). These aMSCs were smaller and more uniform in size (median ± interquartile range: 15.5 ± 4.1 μm versus 17.2 ± 5.0 μm and 15.5 ± 4.1 μm for aMSC ECM and TCPS respectively), exhibited the necessary biomarker signatures, and stained positive for osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic expressions; indications that they maintained multipotency during culture. Furthermore, fMSC ECM improved the proliferation (∼2.2×), size (19.6 ± 11.9 μm vs 30.2 ± 14.5 μm) and differentiation potential in late-passaged aMSCs compared to TCPS. In conclusion, we have established fMSC ECM as a promising cell culture platform for ex vivo expansion of aMSCs.
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