The dynamics and mechanism of SUMO chain deconjugation by SUMO-specific proteases.
ABSTRACT SUMOylation of proteins is a cyclic process that requires both conjugation and deconjugation of SUMO moieties. Besides modification by a single SUMO, SUMO chains have also been observed, yet the dynamics of SUMO conjugation/deconjugation remain poorly understood. Using a non-deconjugatable form of SUMO we demonstrate the underappreciated existence of SUMO chains in vivo, we highlight the importance of SUMO deconjugation, and we demonstrate the highly dynamic nature of the SUMO system. We show that SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) play a crucial role in the dynamics of SUMO chains in vivo by constant deconjugation. Preventing deSUMOylation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe results in slow growth and a sensitivity to replication stress, highlighting the biological requirement for deSUMOylation dynamics. Furthermore, we present the mechanism of SUMO chain deconjugation by SENPs, which occurs via a stochastic mechanism, resulting in cleavage anywhere within a chain. Our results offer mechanistic insights into the workings of deSUMOylating proteases and highlight their importance in the homeostasis of (poly)SUMO-modified substrates.
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ABSTRACT: We summarize the evolutionary relationship, structure and subcellular distribution of SUMO proteases (or SUMO isopeptidases). We also discuss their functions and allude to their involvement in human disease.Genome Biology 07/2014; 15(7). DOI:10.1186/s13059-014-0422-2 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The non-canonical IKK kinase TBK1 serves as an important signal transmitter of the antiviral interferon response, but is also involved in the regulation of further processes such as autophagy. The activity of TBK1 is regulated by posttranslational modifications comprising phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This study identifies SUMOylation as a novel posttranslational TBK1 modification. TBK1 kinase activity is required to allow the attachment of SUMO1 or SUMO2/3 proteins. Since TBK1 does not bind to the E2 enzyme Ubc9, this modification most likely proceeds via trans-SUMOylation. Mass spectrometry allowed identifying K694 as the SUMO acceptor site, a residue located in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain which is exclusively responsible for the association with the adaptor proteins NAP1, Sintbad and TANK. SUMO modification at K694 contributes to the antiviral function of TBK1 and accordingly the viral protein Gam1 antagonizes this posttranslational modification.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 10/2014; 1853(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.10.008 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects base-substitution and insertion-deletion mutations generated during erroneous replication. The mutation or inactivation of many MMR factors strongly predisposes to cancer, where the resulting tumors often display resistance to standard chemotherapeutics. A new direction to develop targeted therapies is the harnessing of synthetic genetic interactions, where the simultaneous loss of two otherwise non-essential factors leads to reduced cell fitness or death. High-throughput screening in human cells to directly identify such interactors for disease-relevant genes is now widespread, but often requires extensive case-by-case optimization. Here we asked if conserved genetic interactors (CGIs) with MMR genes from two evolutionary distant yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyzes pombe) can predict orthologous genetic relationships in higher eukaryotes.Genome Medicine 01/2014; 6(9):68. DOI:10.1186/s13073-014-0068-4 · 4.94 Impact Factor