Reliability of early iodine 123 uptake for treatment of Graves disease in children.
ABSTRACT To determine the reliability of early radioiodine uptake (RAIU) in calculation of the radioiodine ablation dose for pediatric patients with Graves disease.
This retrospective review of medical records involved 22 pediatric patients with Graves disease, who had undergone early (4 to 8 hours) and late (24 to 26 hours) RAIU studies and were treated with iodine 131 (131I). Quantitative data are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Early and late RAIU and actual administered versus calculated 131I ablation doses were compared by using the paired t test. The correlation between early and late RAIU was assessed by curvilinear regression analysis. Significance was assessed at P<.05.
Mean early RAIU was 57.1% ± 18.2%, and mean late RAIU was 72.1% ± 14.4% (P<.05). Curvilinear regression analysis showed the following: late RAIU = 7.13 + 1.71 × (early RAIU) - 0.01 x (early RAIU)2; r2 = 0.75. The mean ablation dose of 131I based on late RAIU was 9.3 ± 2.0 mCi. The calculated radioiodine dose would have been, on average, 32% higher (12.3 ± 3.8 mCi; P<.05) had early RAIU been used.
In children, early RAIU can be much lower than late RAIU. This may be misleading for ablation dose calculations. Therefore, late RAIU should be used to avoid overtreatment in children with Graves disease.
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ABSTRACT: Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of juvenile thyrotoxicosis in children and adolescents (1, 2). Three treatment modalities are now available for the treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis in childhood: antithyroid drugs (ATD), surgery and radioactive iodine (RAI). However, none of these treatments has been shown to be ideal or clearly superior to the others. Physicians in different countries have different approaches concerning the optimal treatment of juvenile GD. In a European questionnaire study (3), which was conducted by the European Thyroid Association in 1993 and in which 99 individuals or groups from 22 countries participated, it was found that 22 out of 99 physicians from nine countries would consider RAI treatment as the treatment of choice for children with recurrent thyrotoxicosis after surgery, or with recurrent thyrotoxicosis 2 years after ATD. However, RAI is preferred by only a small percentage of physicians for this group of patients in Europe. Hardly any of the respondents chose RAI for the patients with a toxic adenoma or a multinodular toxic goiter (3). On the other hand, in view of the difficulties with medical therapy in children and adolescents, including poor compliance, a high rate of relapse, drug toxicity and continued thyroid enlargement, some eminent American physicians emphasize the safety, simplicity and economic advantages of (131)I ablation which should be considered more commonly in children (4, 5). We had the opportunity to conduct a similar study during a pediatric thyroidology symposium, which was organized by Professors Buyugkebiz and Laron in Izmir (Smyrna) Turkey from 30 October to 1 November 2003. During the congress a questionnaire with the following four questions was circulated among the 120 participants from eight countries who were mainly paediatric endocrinologists. Most of them were from Turkey and the rest, except for one who came from the USA, were Europeans. Sixty-one out of the 120 physicians responded.European Journal of Endocrinology 08/2004; 151(1):155-6. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This report details the 26- and 36-yr outcomes of 116 patients under the age of 20 yr with Graves' disease who were treated with radioiodine between 1953 and 1973. Contacted by telephone and mail in 1991-1992, 107 of them supplied personal historical data, and their physicians furnished interval histories, physical examinations, and laboratory data. This was repeated in 2001-2002, with 98 of them being contacted. At the time of treatment, the patients' ages ranged between 3 yr, 7 months and 19 yr, 9 months. Six were less than 6 yr of age, 11 were between 6 and 11 yr, 45 were between 11 and 15 yr, and 45 were between 16 and 19 yr. The average length of follow-up in 1991-1992 was 26.1 yr; that in 2001-2002 was 36.2 yr. None of the patients developed cancer of the thyroid or leukemia. Early on, when the objective of treatment was euthyroidism, the dose of radioiodine was low, and retreatment was frequently needed. Later, the doses used were increased. Over time, all but two patients became hypothyroid. Pregnancies did not result in an unusual number of congenital anomalies or spontaneous abortions. Treating young people with Graves' disease with radioiodine is safe and effective over the long term.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2004; 89(9):4229-33. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since 1946 104 children and adolescents with toxic diffuse goiter have been treated. Sixty-seven were treated with a thioamide for more than 12 months. Remission occurred in 61%. Twenty-five patients had a 12-hour perchlorate discharge test to determine the least frequent dose schedule required for disease control: 68% could be controlled on a single daily dose and an additional 25% on an every 12-hour schedule. A one-hour radioiodine uptake on combined therapy and change in thyroid gland size during treatment were found to be highly correlated with the presence of a spontaneous remission. Thirty-six patients have been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy. To date 65% have developed permanent hypothyroidism. In the author's opinion, thoamides are the treatment of choice for the majority of children and adolescents.Journal of Pediatrics 09/1977; 91(2):313-20. · 3.74 Impact Factor