Reliability of early iodine 123 uptake for treatment of Graves disease in children.

Endocrinology and Diabetes Clinic, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA.
Endocrine Practice (Impact Factor: 2.49). 01/2011; 17(4):541-5. DOI: 10.4158/EP10257.OR
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the reliability of early radioiodine uptake (RAIU) in calculation of the radioiodine ablation dose for pediatric patients with Graves disease.
This retrospective review of medical records involved 22 pediatric patients with Graves disease, who had undergone early (4 to 8 hours) and late (24 to 26 hours) RAIU studies and were treated with iodine 131 (131I). Quantitative data are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. Early and late RAIU and actual administered versus calculated 131I ablation doses were compared by using the paired t test. The correlation between early and late RAIU was assessed by curvilinear regression analysis. Significance was assessed at P<.05.
Mean early RAIU was 57.1% ± 18.2%, and mean late RAIU was 72.1% ± 14.4% (P<.05). Curvilinear regression analysis showed the following: late RAIU = 7.13 + 1.71 × (early RAIU) - 0.01 x (early RAIU)2; r2 = 0.75. The mean ablation dose of 131I based on late RAIU was 9.3 ± 2.0 mCi. The calculated radioiodine dose would have been, on average, 32% higher (12.3 ± 3.8 mCi; P<.05) had early RAIU been used.
In children, early RAIU can be much lower than late RAIU. This may be misleading for ablation dose calculations. Therefore, late RAIU should be used to avoid overtreatment in children with Graves disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Graves' disease (GD) is the most common cause of juvenile thyrotoxicosis in children and adolescents (1, 2). Three treatment modalities are now available for the treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis in childhood: antithyroid drugs (ATD), surgery and radioactive iodine (RAI). However, none of these treatments has been shown to be ideal or clearly superior to the others. Physicians in different countries have different approaches concerning the optimal treatment of juvenile GD. In a European questionnaire study (3), which was conducted by the European Thyroid Association in 1993 and in which 99 individuals or groups from 22 countries participated, it was found that 22 out of 99 physicians from nine countries would consider RAI treatment as the treatment of choice for children with recurrent thyrotoxicosis after surgery, or with recurrent thyrotoxicosis 2 years after ATD. However, RAI is preferred by only a small percentage of physicians for this group of patients in Europe. Hardly any of the respondents chose RAI for the patients with a toxic adenoma or a multinodular toxic goiter (3). On the other hand, in view of the difficulties with medical therapy in children and adolescents, including poor compliance, a high rate of relapse, drug toxicity and continued thyroid enlargement, some eminent American physicians emphasize the safety, simplicity and economic advantages of (131)I ablation which should be considered more commonly in children (4, 5). We had the opportunity to conduct a similar study during a pediatric thyroidology symposium, which was organized by Professors Buyugkebiz and Laron in Izmir (Smyrna) Turkey from 30 October to 1 November 2003. During the congress a questionnaire with the following four questions was circulated among the 120 participants from eight countries who were mainly paediatric endocrinologists. Most of them were from Turkey and the rest, except for one who came from the USA, were Europeans. Sixty-one out of the 120 physicians responded.
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