Development of chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry isotope dilution methods for the determination of unconjugated and total S-equol in human plasma and urine.
ABSTRACT Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the determination of unconjugated and total (conjugated plus unconjugated) S-equol in human plasma and urine were developed and validated. The separation of R and S enantiomers was achieved with a Chiracel OJ-H column operated in a normal phase mode using ethanol/hexane mobile phase components. Ionization of S-equol by negative ion electrospray generated the [M-H](-) ion whose response was augmented by post-column addition of ammonium hydroxide. A triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to measure the ion current generated from the dissociative transitions m/z 241→m/z 121 (S-equol) and m/z 245→m/z 123 (equol-d(4)). The determination of total S-equol included an additional deconjugation step involving incubation of the sample with sulfatase and glucuronidase. Average recovery for both unconjugated and total S-equol was 85% with no observable matrix effects. Linearity was established for unconjugated S-equol from 0.025ng/mL to 10ng/mL (plasma) and 0.20ng/mL to 200ng/mL (urine). The average coefficient of variation and accuracy per occasion was within ±15% of the theoretical concentration of S-equol. The method was used to measure the pharmacokinetics of S-equol in human plasma after an oral administration of a single 20mg dose of S-equol to three normal healthy volunteers.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the value of a high resolution, high mass accuracy time-of-flight analyzer in combination with nanoliquid chromatography for the analysis of polyphenols and their metabolites. The goal was to create a method that utilizes small volumes of biological fluids and provides a significant improvement in sensitivity compared with existing methods. Accordingly, nanoLC-MS and nanoLC-pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods were developed that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 nM for several polyphenols and were linear over 2-3 orders of magnitude (R2>0.999). Using urine samples, the ability to observe and quantify polyphenols in such a complex biological fluid depended on much narrower mass windows (0.050 amu or less) on a TOF analyzer than those used on a quadrupole analyzer (0.7 amu). Although a greater selectivity was possible with the low mass resolution of a triple quadrupole instrument using the MRM approach, for the daidzein metabolite O-DMA, a chromatographically resolvable second peak could only be substantially reduced by using a 0.01 amu mass window. The advantage of a TOF analyzer for product ion data is that the whole MSMS spectrum is collected at high mass accuracy and MRM experiments are conducted in silico after the analysis.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
- Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 05/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucuronidation and sulfation represent two major pathways in phase II drug metabolism in humans and other mammalian species. The great majority of drugs, for example, polyphenols, flavonoids and anthraquinones, could be transformed into sulfated and glucuronidated conjugates simultaneously and extensively in vivo. The pharmacological activities of drug conjugations are normally decreased compared with those of their free forms. However, some drug conjugates may either bear biological activities themselves or serve as excellent sources of biologically active compounds. As the bioactivities of drugs are thought to be relevant to the kinetics of their conjugates, it is essential to study the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the conjugates in more detail. Unfortunately, the free forms of drugs cannot be detected directly in most cases if their glucuronides and sulfates are the predominant forms in biological samples. Nevertheless, an initial enzymatic hydrolysis step using β-glucuronidase and/or sulfatase is usually performed to convert the glucuronidated and/or sulfated conjugates to their free forms prior to the extraction, purification and other subsequent analysis steps in the literature. This review provides fundamental information on drug metabolism pathways, the bio-analytical strategies for the quantification of various drug conjugates, and the applications of the analytical methods to pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Biomedical Chromatography 05/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor