Improved galactose fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through inverse metabolic engineering.
ABSTRACT Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of fermenting galactose into ethanol, ethanol yield and productivity from galactose are significantly lower than those from glucose. An inverse metabolic engineering approach was undertaken to improve ethanol yield and productivity from galactose in S. cerevisiae. A genome-wide perturbation library was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and then fast galactose-fermenting transformants were screened using three different enrichment methods. The characterization of genetic perturbations in the isolated transformants revealed three target genes whose overexpression elicited enhanced galactose utilization. One confirmatory (SEC53 coding for phosphomannomutase) and two novel targets (SNR84 coding for a small nuclear RNA and a truncated form of TUP1 coding for a general repressor of transcription) were identified as overexpression targets that potentially improve galactose fermentation. Beneficial effects of overexpression of SEC53 may be similar to the mechanisms exerted by overexpression of PGM2 coding for phosphoglucomutase. While the mechanism is largely unknown, overexpression of SNR84, improved both growth and ethanol production from galactose. The most remarkable improvement of galactose fermentation was achieved by overexpression of the truncated TUP1 (tTUP1) gene, resulting in unrivalled galactose fermentation capability, that is 250% higher in both galactose consumption rate and ethanol productivity compared to the control strain. Moreover, the overexpression of tTUP1 significantly shortened lag periods that occurs when substrate is changed from glucose to galactose. Based on these results we proposed a hypothesis that the mutant Tup1 without C-terminal repression domain might bring in earlier and higher expression of GAL genes through partial alleviation of glucose repression. mRNA levels of GAL genes (GAL1, GAL4, and GAL80) indeed increased upon overexpression of tTUP. The results presented in this study illustrate that alteration of global regulatory networks through overexpression of the identified targets (SNR84 and tTUP1) is as effective as overexpression of a rate limiting metabolic gene (PGM2) in the galactose assimilation pathway for efficient galactose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. In addition, these results will be industrially useful in the biofuels area as galactose is one of the abundant sugars in marine plant biomass such as red seaweed as well as cheese whey and molasses.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A wild-type yeast strain with a good galactose-utilization efficiency was newly isolated from the soil, and identified and named Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL17 by 18s RNA sequencing. Its performance of producing ethanol from galactose was investigated in flask cultures with media containing various combination and concentrations of galactose and glucose. When the initial galactose concentration was 20 g/L, it showed 2.2 g/L/h of substrate consumption rate and 0.63 g/L/h of ethanol productivity. Although they were about 70 % of those with glucose, such performance of S. cerevisiae KL17 with galactose was considered to be quite high compared with other strains reported to date. Its additional merit was that its galactose metabolism was not repressed by the existence of glucose. Its capability of ethanol production under a high ethanol concentration was demonstrated by fed-batch fermentation in a bioreactor. A high ethanol productivity of 3.03 g/L/h was obtained with an ethanol concentration and yield of 95 and 0.39 g/L, respectively, when the cells were pre-cultured on glucose. When the cells were pre-cultured on galactose instead of glucose, fermentation time could be reduced significantly, resulting in an improved ethanol productivity of 3.46 g/L/h. The inhibitory effects of two major impurities in a crude galactose solution obtained from acid hydrolysis of galactan were assessed. Only 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) significantly inhibited ethanol fermentation, while levulinic acid (LA) was benign in the range up to 10 g/L.Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 03/2014; · 1.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Utilization of 1,6-anhydro-β-d-glucopyranose (levoglucosan) present (11% w/v) in the water fraction of bio-oil for ethanol production will facilitate improvement in comprehensive utilization of total carbon in biomass. One of the major challenges for conversion of anhydrous sugars from the bio-oil water fraction to bio-ethanol is the presence of inhibitory compounds that slow or impede the microbial fermentation process. Removal of inhibitory compounds was first approached by n-butanol extraction. Optimal ratio of n-butanol and bio-oil water fraction was 1.8:1. Removal of dissolved n-butanol was completed by evaporation. Concentration of sugars in the bio-oil water fraction was performed by membrane filtration and freeze drying. Fermentability of the pyrolytic sugars was tested by fermentation of hydrolyzed sugars with Saccharomyces pastorianus lager yeast. The yield of ethanol produced from pyrolytic sugars in the bio-oil water fraction reached a maximum of 98% of the theoretical yield.Bioresource Technology 03/2014; 161C:379-384. · 4.75 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Glucose repression is a global regulatory system in baker¿s yeast. Maltose metabolism in baker¿s yeast strains is negatively influenced by glucose, thereby affecting metabolite productivity (leavening ability in lean dough). Even if the general repression system constituted by MIG1, TUP1 and SSN6 factors has already been reported, the functions of these three genes in maltose metabolism remain unclear. In this work, we explored the effects of MIG1 and/or TUP1 and/or SSN6 deletion on the alleviation of glucose-repression to promote maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker¿s yeast.ResultsResults strongly suggest that the deletion of MIG1 and/or TUP1 and/or SSN6 can exert various effects on glucose repression for maltose metabolism. The deletion of TUP1 was negative for glucose derepression to facilitate the maltose metabolism. By contrast, the deletion of MIG1 and/or SSN6, rather than other double-gene or triple-gene mutations could partly relieve glucose repression, thereby promoting maltose metabolism and the leavening ability of baker¿s yeast in lean dough.Conclusions The mutants of industrial baker¿s yeast with enhanced maltose metabolism and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These baker¿s yeast strains had excellent potential industrial applications.Microbial Cell Factories 07/2014; 13(1):93. · 3.31 Impact Factor