Improved galactose fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through inverse metabolic engineering.
ABSTRACT Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of fermenting galactose into ethanol, ethanol yield and productivity from galactose are significantly lower than those from glucose. An inverse metabolic engineering approach was undertaken to improve ethanol yield and productivity from galactose in S. cerevisiae. A genome-wide perturbation library was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and then fast galactose-fermenting transformants were screened using three different enrichment methods. The characterization of genetic perturbations in the isolated transformants revealed three target genes whose overexpression elicited enhanced galactose utilization. One confirmatory (SEC53 coding for phosphomannomutase) and two novel targets (SNR84 coding for a small nuclear RNA and a truncated form of TUP1 coding for a general repressor of transcription) were identified as overexpression targets that potentially improve galactose fermentation. Beneficial effects of overexpression of SEC53 may be similar to the mechanisms exerted by overexpression of PGM2 coding for phosphoglucomutase. While the mechanism is largely unknown, overexpression of SNR84, improved both growth and ethanol production from galactose. The most remarkable improvement of galactose fermentation was achieved by overexpression of the truncated TUP1 (tTUP1) gene, resulting in unrivalled galactose fermentation capability, that is 250% higher in both galactose consumption rate and ethanol productivity compared to the control strain. Moreover, the overexpression of tTUP1 significantly shortened lag periods that occurs when substrate is changed from glucose to galactose. Based on these results we proposed a hypothesis that the mutant Tup1 without C-terminal repression domain might bring in earlier and higher expression of GAL genes through partial alleviation of glucose repression. mRNA levels of GAL genes (GAL1, GAL4, and GAL80) indeed increased upon overexpression of tTUP. The results presented in this study illustrate that alteration of global regulatory networks through overexpression of the identified targets (SNR84 and tTUP1) is as effective as overexpression of a rate limiting metabolic gene (PGM2) in the galactose assimilation pathway for efficient galactose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. In addition, these results will be industrially useful in the biofuels area as galactose is one of the abundant sugars in marine plant biomass such as red seaweed as well as cheese whey and molasses.
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ABSTRACT: One of the challenging tasks in systems biology is to understand how molecular networks give rise to emergent functionality and whether universal design principles apply to molecular networks. To achieve this, the biophysical, evolutionary and physiological constraints that act on those networks need to be identified in addition to the characterisation of the molecular components and interactions. Then, the cellular "task" of the network-its function-should be identified. A network contributes to organismal fitness through its function. The premise is that the same functions are often implemented in different organisms by the same type of network; hence, the concept of design principles. In biology, due to the strong forces of selective pressure and natural selection, network functions can often be understood as the outcome of fitness optimisation. The hypothesis of fitness optimisation to understand the design of a network has proven to be a powerful strategy. Here, we outline the use of several optimisation principles applied to biological networks, with an emphasis on metabolic regulatory networks. We discuss the different objective functions and constraints that are considered and the kind of understanding that they provide.Metabolites. 12/2012; 2(3):529-52.
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ABSTRACT: Utilization of 1,6-anhydro-β-d-glucopyranose (levoglucosan) present (11% w/v) in the water fraction of bio-oil for ethanol production will facilitate improvement in comprehensive utilization of total carbon in biomass. One of the major challenges for conversion of anhydrous sugars from the bio-oil water fraction to bio-ethanol is the presence of inhibitory compounds that slow or impede the microbial fermentation process. Removal of inhibitory compounds was first approached by n-butanol extraction. Optimal ratio of n-butanol and bio-oil water fraction was 1.8:1. Removal of dissolved n-butanol was completed by evaporation. Concentration of sugars in the bio-oil water fraction was performed by membrane filtration and freeze drying. Fermentability of the pyrolytic sugars was tested by fermentation of hydrolyzed sugars with Saccharomyces pastorianus lager yeast. The yield of ethanol produced from pyrolytic sugars in the bio-oil water fraction reached a maximum of 98% of the theoretical yield.Bioresource Technology 03/2014; 161C:379-384. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Glucose repression is a global regulatory system in baker¿s yeast. Maltose metabolism in baker¿s yeast strains is negatively influenced by glucose, thereby affecting metabolite productivity (leavening ability in lean dough). Even if the general repression system constituted by MIG1, TUP1 and SSN6 factors has already been reported, the functions of these three genes in maltose metabolism remain unclear. In this work, we explored the effects of MIG1 and/or TUP1 and/or SSN6 deletion on the alleviation of glucose-repression to promote maltose metabolism and leavening ability of baker¿s yeast.ResultsResults strongly suggest that the deletion of MIG1 and/or TUP1 and/or SSN6 can exert various effects on glucose repression for maltose metabolism. The deletion of TUP1 was negative for glucose derepression to facilitate the maltose metabolism. By contrast, the deletion of MIG1 and/or SSN6, rather than other double-gene or triple-gene mutations could partly relieve glucose repression, thereby promoting maltose metabolism and the leavening ability of baker¿s yeast in lean dough.Conclusions The mutants of industrial baker¿s yeast with enhanced maltose metabolism and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These baker¿s yeast strains had excellent potential industrial applications.Microbial Cell Factories 07/2014; 13(1):93. · 4.25 Impact Factor