Mutational analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia: when and what to do?
ABSTRACT Imatinib, which was the first targeted therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), has led to the significant prolongation of life for most patients. However, approximately 30% fail therapy. The major mechanism of acquired resistance is somatic mutation within the BCR-ABL1 kinase domain, which affects imatinib binding. Recently, more potent inhibitors have been approved that retain activity against most of the more than 100 mutations. However, some mutations remain problematic for one or more of the new inhibitors. The most frequently detected mutation, T315I, remains resistant to all of the currently approved inhibitors. More sensitive mutation techniques that focus on the detection of a limited number of specific mutations may be beneficial, but are yet to prove their clinical utility for the early detection of relapse in routine practice.
Inhibitors with alternate binding modes that may overcome T315I-associated resistance are at the preclinical stage or are undergoing clinical trial.
Each of the new, more potent kinase inhibitor drugs appear to have a partially overlapping set of mutations that confer a degree of resistance. Mutation detection techniques may need to adapt to provide clinicians with a more timely indication of mutation acquisition and pending relapse.
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ABSTRACT: BCR-ABL1 mutation analysis is recommended to facilitate selection of appropriate therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia after treatment with imatinib has failed, since some frequently occurring mutations confer clinical resistance to nilotinib and/or dasatinib. However, mutations could be present below the detection limit of conventional direct sequencing. We developed a sensitive, multiplexed mass spectrometry assay (detection limit, 0.05% to 0.5%) to determine the impact of low-level mutations after imatinib treatment has failed. Mutation status was assessed in 220 patients treated with nilotinib or dasatinib after they experienced resistance to imatinib. Mutations were detected by sequencing in 128 patients before commencing nilotinib or dasatinib therapy (switchover). In 64 patients, 132 additional low-level mutations were detected by mass spectrometry alone (50 of 132 mutations were resistant to nilotinib and/or dasatinib). When patients received the inhibitor for which the mutation confers resistance, 84% of the low-level resistant mutations rapidly became dominant clones detectable by sequencing, including 11 of 12 T315I mutations. Subsequent complete cytogenetic response rates were lower for patients with resistant mutations at switchover detected by sequencing (0%) or mass spectrometry alone (16%) compared with patients with other mutations or no mutations (41% and 49%, respectively; P < .001). Failure-free survival among the 100 patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia when resistant mutations were detected at switchover by sequencing or mass spectrometry alone was 0% and 0% compared with 51% and 45% for patients with other mutations or no mutations (P = .003). Detection of low-level mutations after imatinib resistance offers critical information to guide subsequent therapy selection. If an inappropriate kinase inhibitor is selected, there is a high risk of treatment failure with clonal expansion of the resistant mutant.Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 29(32):4250-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the past years, we synthesized a series of new molecules that are hybrids of spirocyclic ketones as complexity-bearing cores with bi- and ter-phenyls as privileged fragments. Some of these newly-shaped small molecules showed antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and differentiating activity in leukemia cell lines. In the present study, to investigate more in depth the mechanisms of action of these molecules, the protein expression profiles of K562 cells treated with or without the compounds and were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Proteome comparisons revealed several differentially expressed proteins, mainly related to cellular metabolism, chaperone activity, cytoskeletal organization and RNA biogenesis. The major results were validated by Western blot and qPCR. To attempt integrating findings into a cellular signaling context, proteomic data were explored using MetaCore. Network analysis highlighted relevant relationships between the identified proteins and additional potential effectors. Notably, qPCR validation of central hubs showed that the compound induced high mRNA levels of the transcriptional factors EGR1 and HNF4-alpha; the latter to our knowledge is reported here for the first time to be present in K562 cells. Consistently with the known EGR1 involvement in the regulation of differentiation along megakaryocyte lineage, -treated leukemia cells showed a marked expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (CD41) and glycoprotein Ib (CD42), two important cell markers in megakaryocytic differentiation, together with morphological aspects of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57650. · 3.73 Impact Factor