Mutational analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia: when and what to do?
ABSTRACT Imatinib, which was the first targeted therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), has led to the significant prolongation of life for most patients. However, approximately 30% fail therapy. The major mechanism of acquired resistance is somatic mutation within the BCR-ABL1 kinase domain, which affects imatinib binding. Recently, more potent inhibitors have been approved that retain activity against most of the more than 100 mutations. However, some mutations remain problematic for one or more of the new inhibitors. The most frequently detected mutation, T315I, remains resistant to all of the currently approved inhibitors. More sensitive mutation techniques that focus on the detection of a limited number of specific mutations may be beneficial, but are yet to prove their clinical utility for the early detection of relapse in routine practice.
Inhibitors with alternate binding modes that may overcome T315I-associated resistance are at the preclinical stage or are undergoing clinical trial.
Each of the new, more potent kinase inhibitor drugs appear to have a partially overlapping set of mutations that confer a degree of resistance. Mutation detection techniques may need to adapt to provide clinicians with a more timely indication of mutation acquisition and pending relapse.
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ABSTRACT: A protein has been identified that interacts specifically with both the Src homologous 3 (SH3) domain and carboxy-terminal sequences of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. The cDNA encoding the Abl interactor protein (Abi-2), was isolated from a human lymphocyte library using the yeast two-hybrid system with the Abl SH3 domain as bait. Abi-2 binds to c-Abl in vitro and in vivo. Abi-2 is a novel protein that contains an SH3 domain and proline-rich sequences critical for binding to c-Abl. A basic region in the amino terminus of Abi-2 is homologous to the DNA-binding sequence of homeo-domain proteins. We show that Abi-2 is a substrate for the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Expression of an Abi-2 mutant protein that lacks sequences required for binding to the Abl SH3 domain but retains binding to the Abl carboxyl terminus activates the transforming capacity of c-Abl. The properties of Abi-2 are consistent with a dual role as regulator and potential effector of the c-Abl protein and suggest that Abi-2 may function as a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells.Genes & Development 12/1995; 9(21):2569-82. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have introduced two loss-of-function point mutations from highly conserved regions of the src homology 3 (SH3) domains of the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene into the SH3 domain of the murine type IV c-abl tyrosine kinase proto-oncogene. One of the mutations, P131L, activated abl to transform fibroblasts while the other, G128R, did not. When combined with independent activating mutations in the c-abl kinase domain or NH2-terminus, the G128R mutation blocked transformation by the double mutant, suggesting that the G128R mutant was unable to transform cells for trivial reasons. The c-Abl G128R mutant, like wild type c-Abl protein, was localized to the nucleus and actin cytoskeleton and had normal tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, while the transforming c-Abl P131L protein was localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and exhibited decreased in vitro kinase activity. By real-time biospecific interaction analysis, the wild type Abl SH3 domain bound to two proteins containing proline-rich motifs with dissociation constants of 0.2 and 17 microM; the G128R mutant bound with 50-fold lower affinity, and no binding was detected by the P131L mutant. Both mutations completely abolished binding of the Abl SH3 domain to proline-rich target proteins in a filter-binding assay. These results suggest that the transforming activity of Abl is regulated in vivo by an inhibitor protein which associates with the SH3 domain via a proline-rich sequence.Oncogene 06/1995; 10(10):1977-88. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion and stress response. Alterations of ABL1 by chromosomal rearrangement or viral transduction can lead to malignant transformation. Activity of the c-Abl protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain through an unknown mechanism, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. We present evidence for an intramolecular inhibitory interaction of the SH3 domain with the catalytic domain and with the linker between the SH2 and catalytic domain (SH2-CD linker). Site-directed mutations in each of these three elements activate c-Abl. Mutations in the linker cause a conformational change of the molecule and increase binding of the SH3 domain to peptide ligands. Individual mutation of two charged residues in the SH3 and catalytic domain activates c-Abl, while inhibition is restored in the double reciprocal mutant. We propose that regulators of c-Abl will have opposite effects on its activity depending on their ability to favour or disrupt these intramolecular interactions.Nature Genetics 03/1998; 18(3):280-2. · 35.21 Impact Factor