Article

Mouse cardiac acyl coenzyme a synthetase 1 deficiency impairs Fatty Acid oxidation and induces cardiac hypertrophy

Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 135 Dauer Drive, MHRC 2301, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 02/2011; 31(6):1252-62. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.01085-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase isoform 1 (ACSL1) catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-CoA from long-chain fatty acids and contributes the majority of cardiac long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity. To understand its functional role in the heart, we studied mice lacking ACSL1 globally (Acsl1(T-/-)) and mice lacking ACSL1 in heart ventricles (Acsl1(H-/-)) at different times. Compared to littermate controls, heart ventricular ACSL activity in Acsl1(T-/-) mice was reduced more than 90%, acyl-CoA content was 65% lower, and long-chain acyl-carnitine content was 80 to 90% lower. The rate of [(14)C]palmitate oxidation in both heart homogenate and mitochondria was 90% lower than in the controls, and the maximal rates of [(14)C]pyruvate and [(14)C]glucose oxidation were each 20% higher. The mitochondrial area was 54% greater than in the controls with twice as much mitochondrial DNA, and the mRNA abundance of Pgc1α and Errα increased by 100% and 41%, respectively. Compared to the controls, Acsl1(T-/-) and Acsl1(H-/-) hearts were hypertrophied, and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase, a target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, increased 5-fold. Our data suggest that ACSL1 is required to synthesize the acyl-CoAs that are oxidized by the heart, and that without ACSL1, diminished fatty acid (FA) oxidation and compensatory catabolism of glucose and amino acids lead to mTOR activation and cardiac hypertrophy without lipid accumulation or immediate cardiac dysfunction.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Steven M Watkins, Mar 06, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
242 Views
  • Source
    • "Therefore, the excess accumulation of TG in the Atgl −/− hearts was at least partially due to increased lipid storage secondary to defective FA oxidation. A less dramatic phenotype but one also associated with decreased FA oxidation activation occurred with cardiac deletion of acyl CoA synthetase 1 (Ellis et al., 2011). This study and another from this group (Ellis et al., 2010) suggest that PPAR activation is via a product of the CoA synthetase reaction. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The heart has both the greatest caloric needs and the most robust oxidation of fatty acids (FAs). Under pathological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiac uptake and oxidation are not balanced and hearts accumulate lipid potentially leading to cardiac lipotoxicity. We will first review the pathways utilized by the heart to acquire FAs from the circulation and to store triglyceride intracellularly. Then we will describe mouse models in which excess lipid accumulation causes heart dysfunction and experiments performed to alleviate this toxicity. Finally, the known relationships between heart lipid metabolism and dysfunction in humans will be summarized.
    Cell metabolism 06/2012; 15(6):805-12. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.006 · 16.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) contributes 50 to 90% of total ACSL activity in liver, adipose tissue, and heart and appears to direct the use of long chain fatty acids for energy. Although the functional importance of ACSL1 is becoming clear, little is understood about its post-translational regulation. In order to investigate the post-translational modifications of ACSL1 under different physiological conditions, we overexpressed ACSL1 in hepatocytes, brown adipocytes, and 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, treated these cells with different hormones, and analyzed the resulting phosphorylated and acetylated amino acids by mass spectrometry. We then compared these results to the post-translational modifications observed in vivo in liver and brown adipose tissue after mice were fasted or exposed to a cold environment. We identified universal N-terminal acetylation, 15 acetylated lysines, and 25 phosphorylation sites on ACSL1. Several unique acetylation and phosphorylation sites occurred under conditions in which fatty acid β-oxidation is normally enhanced. Thirteen of the acetylated lysines had not previously been identified, and none of the phosphorylation sites had been previously identified. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce mutations at three potential acetylation and phosphorylation sites believed to be important for ACSL1 function. At the ATP/AMP binding site and at a highly conserved site near the C terminus, modifications of Ser278 or Lys676, respectively, totally inhibited ACSL1 activity. In contrast, mutations of Lys285 that mimicked acetylation (Lys285Ala and Lys285Gln) reduced ACSL activity, whereas full activity was retained by Lys285Arg, suggesting that acetylation of Lys285 would be likely to decrease ACSL1 activity. These results indicate that ACSL1 is highly modified post-translationally. Several of these modifications would be expected to alter enzymatic function, but others may affect protein stability or protein-protein interactions.
    Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics 07/2011; 4(7):129-137. DOI:10.4172/jpb.1000180
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipin-1 is the major phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) in the heart and a transcriptional coactivator that regulates fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the liver. As the control of FA metabolism is essential for maintaining cardiac function, we investigated whether lipin-1 deficiency affects cardiac metabolism and performance. Cardiac PAP activity in lipin-1 deficient [fatty liver dystrophy (fld)] mice was decreased by >80% compared with controls. Surprisingly, oleate oxidation and incorporation in triacylglycerol (TG), as well as glucose oxidation, were not significantly different in perfused working fld hearts. Despite this, [³H]oleate accumulation in phosphatidate and phosphatidylinositol was increased in fld hearts, reflecting the decreased PAP activity. Phosphatidate accumulation was linked to increased cardiac mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Transthoracic echocardiography showed decreased cardiac function in fld mice; however, cardiac dysfunction was not observed in ex vivo perfused working fld hearts. This showed that changes in systemic factors due to the global absence of lipin-1 could contribute to the decreased cardiac function in vivo. Collectively, this study shows that fld hearts exhibit unchanged oleate esterification, as well as oleate and glucose oxidation, despite the absence of lipin-1. However, lipin-1 deficiency increases the accumulation of newly synthesized phosphatidate and induces aberrant cell signaling.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2011; 53(1):105-18. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M019430 · 4.73 Impact Factor
Show more