NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase participates in epigenetic reprogramming during endotoxin tolerance.
ABSTRACT Gene-selective epigenetic reprogramming and shifts in cellular bioenergetics develop when Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize and respond to systemic life-threatening infections. Using a human monocyte cell model of endotoxin tolerance and human leukocytes from acute systemic inflammation with sepsis, we report that energy sensor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) coordinates the epigenetic and bioenergy shifts. After TLR4 signaling, SIRT1 rapidly accumulated at the promoters of TNF-α and IL-1β, but not IκBα; SIRT1 promoter binding was dependent on its co-factor, NAD(+). During this initial process, SIRT1 deacetylated RelA/p65 lysine 310 and nucleosomal histone H4 lysine 16 to promote termination of NFκB-dependent transcription. SIRT1 then remained promoter bound and recruited de novo induced RelB, which directed assembly of the mature transcription repressor complex that generates endotoxin tolerance. SIRT1 also promoted de novo expression of RelB. During sustained endotoxin tolerance, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme for endogenous production of NAD(+), and SIRT1 expression increased. The elevation of SIRT1 required protein stabilization and enhanced translation. To support the coordination of bioenergetics in human sepsis, we observed elevated NAD(+) levels concomitant with SIRT1 and RelB accumulation at the TNF-α promoter of endotoxin tolerant sepsis blood leukocytes. We conclude that TLR4 stimulation and human sepsis activate pathways that couple NAD(+) and its sensor SIRT1 with epigenetic reprogramming.
- SourceAvailable from: Charles E Mccall[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The NF-kappaB family plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of highly lethal septicemia by modulating transcription of many innate and adaptive immunity genes. Two phases of NF-kappaB activation occur: cytosolic activation and nuclear transactivation. Septicemia with multiorgan failure is associated with chronic activation of cytosolic NF-kappaB with translocation and accumulation of increased levels of nuclear p65 in blood leukocytes. Paradoxically, NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of many proinflammatory genes responding to bacterial LPS endotoxin (LPS) is persistently repressed during septicemia; this phenomenon of LPS tolerance is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis. This report suggests an explanation for this paradox. Using an in vitro human leukocyte model and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we find that both the cytosolic activation and nuclear transactivation phases of NF-kappaB occur in LPS responsive THP-1 promonocytes with recruitment and binding of NF-kappaB p65 at the IL-1beta promoter. However, transcriptionally repressed LPS-tolerant THP-1 cells do not bind NF-kappaB p65 at the IL-1beta promoter, despite cytosolic activation and accumulation of p65 in the nucleus. In contrast, NF-kappaB p50, which also accumulates in the nucleus, constitutively binds to the IL-1beta promoter NF-kappaB site in both LPS-responsive and LPS-tolerant cells. The level of p65 binding correlates with a binary shift in nucleosome remodeling between histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 and methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9. We conclude that LPS tolerance disrupts the transactivating stage of NF-kappaB p65 and altered nucleosome remodeling at the IL-1beta promoter in human leukocytes.The Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 175(1):461-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The products of proinflammatory genes such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) initiate many of the events associated with sepsis. Transcription of these genes is subsequently down-regulated, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory genes such as secretory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1 RA) is maintained. Differential expression is associated with endotoxin tolerance, a cellular phenomenon common to sepsis and characterized by reduced proinflammatory gene expression after repeated exposure to lipopolysaccharide. As a model for endotoxin tolerance, we examined the expression of COX-2 and sIL-1 RA in a human promonocyte cell line, THP-1. We observed a 5-fold decrease in COX-2 protein in endotoxin-tolerant cells relative to control cells. In contrast, sIL-1 RA protein increased 5-fold in control and tolerant cells and remained elevated. Decreased COX-2 production is due to repressed transcription and not enhanced mRNA degradation. In addition, COX-2 protein is turned over rapidly. Transcription of sIL-1 RA is also repressed during tolerance. However, sIL-1 RA mRNA is degraded more slowly than COX-2 mRNA, allowing continued synthesis of sIL-1 RA protein that is very stable. These results indicate that differential expression during endotoxin tolerance occurs by transcriptional repression of COX-2 and by protein and mRNA stabilization of sIL-1 RA.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2000; 275(16):12185-93. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using a THP-1 human promonocyte model of endotoxin tolerance that simulates the sepsis leukocyte phenotype, we previously showed that tolerant cells remain responsive to LPS endotoxin with degradation of IkappaB in the cytosol and nuclear translocation and accumulation of p50 and p65 NF-kappaB transcription factors. Despite this, endotoxin-inducible NF-kappaB-dependent innate immunity genes, like IL-1beta, remained transcriptionally unresponsive in the tolerant phenotype, similar to the endotoxin tolerance observed in sepsis patients. In this study, we examined this paradox and found that RelB, another member of the NF-kappaB family, is induced during the establishment of tolerance. RelB expression correlated with IL-1beta repression, and sepsis patients showed increased RelB when compared with normal controls. Transient expression of RelB inhibited IL-1beta in endotoxin-responsive cells. In the inverse experiment, small inhibitory RNAs decreased RelB expression in tolerant cells and restored endotoxin induction of IL-1beta. When we examined tolerant cell extracts, we found transcriptionally inactive NF-kappaB p65/RelB heterodimers. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that RelB can repress proinflammatory gene expression, and suggest that RelB expression in sepsis patient blood leukocytes may play a role in the endotoxin-tolerant phenotype.The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(6):4080-5. · 5.52 Impact Factor