Article

The CD40-CD40L system in cardiovascular disease.

University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences , City Hospital, Birmingham, England UK.
Annals of Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.73). 08/2011; 43(5):331-40. DOI: 10.3109/07853890.2010.546362
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
109 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysfunction, serotonergic system alterations, and enhanced platelet activity may contribute to the increased cardiac risk in depression. This exploratory study examined associations between cortisol parameters, platelet serotonin (5-HT) content, and platelet activity markers in patients with newly diagnosed major depression (MD) and/or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with healthy controls. We compared cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal decrease in salivary cortisol concentrations (slope), platelet 5-HT, and platelet markers (CD40, CD40 ligand [CD40L], soluble CD40L, CD62P, β-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor-4) in 22 T2DM patients, 20 MD patients, 18 T2DM patients with MD, and 24 healthy controls. Platelet markers were elevated in MD (F(6,60) = 11.14, p < .001) and T2DM (F(6,60) = 13.07, p < .001). Subgroups did not differ in 5-HTor cortisol slope, whereas T2DMpatients without depression had significantly lower CAR than did healthy controls (F(1,61) = 7.46, p = .008). In healthy controls, cortisol slope correlated with platelet activity for CD40 (r = -0.43, p = .048) and 5-HTwas correlated with CD40L (r = 0.53, p = .007). In patients with both T2DMandMD, 5-HT and CD62P were correlated (r = 0.52, p = .033). Increased platelet activity in T2DM and MD may play a role in the association between diabetes, depression, and coronary artery disease. The present data suggest that group differences in cortisol or 5-HT as well as group-specific associations of cortisol or 5-HT with platelet markers might be of limited importance in the shared pathways of T2DM and depression in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platelets primarily mediate hemostasis and thrombosis, whereas leukocytes are responsible for immune responses. Since platelets interact with leukocytes at the site of vascular injury, thrombosis and vascular inflammation are closely intertwined and occur consecutively. Recent studies using real-time imaging technology demonstrated that platelet-neutrophil interactions on the activated endothelium are an important determinant of microvascular occlusion during thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation is coupled to thrombosis. Although the major receptors and counter receptors have been identified, it remains poorly understood how heterotypic platelet-neutrophil interactions are regulated under disease conditions. This review discusses our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of platelet-neutrophil interactions in thromboinflammatory disease.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00018-015-1845-y · 5.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysfunction, serotonergic system alterations, and enhanced platelet activity may contribute to the increased cardiac risk in depression. This exploratory study examined associations between cortisol parameters, platelet serotonin (5-HT) content, and platelet activity markers in patients with newly diagnosed major depression (MD) and/or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with healthy controls. We compared cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal decrease in salivary cortisol concentrations (slope), platelet 5-HT, and platelet markers (CD40, CD40 ligand [CD40L], soluble CD40L, CD62P, β-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor-4) in 22 T2DM patients, 20 MD patients, 18 T2DM patients with MD, and 24 healthy controls. Platelet markers were elevated in MD (F(6,60) = 11.14, p < .001) and T2DM (F(6,60) = 13.07, p < .001). Subgroups did not differ in 5-HTor cortisol slope, whereas T2DMpatients without depression had significantly lower CAR than did healthy controls (F(1,61) = 7.46, p = .008). In healthy controls, cortisol slope correlated with platelet activity for CD40 (r = -0.43, p = .048) and 5-HTwas correlated with CD40L (r = 0.53, p = .007). In patients with both T2DMandMD, 5-HT and CD62P were correlated (r = 0.52, p = .033). Increased platelet activity in T2DM and MD may play a role in the association between diabetes, depression, and coronary artery disease. The present data suggest that group differences in cortisol or 5-HT as well as group-specific associations of cortisol or 5-HT with platelet markers might be of limited importance in the shared pathways of T2DM and depression in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2015; 1. · 4.09 Impact Factor