The CD40-CD40L system in cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
SourceAvailable from: Leonora Franke[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysfunction, serotonergic system alterations, and enhanced platelet activity may contribute to the increased cardiac risk in depression. This exploratory study examined associations between cortisol parameters, platelet serotonin (5-HT) content, and platelet activity markers in patients with newly diagnosed major depression (MD) and/or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with healthy controls. We compared cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal decrease in salivary cortisol concentrations (slope), platelet 5-HT, and platelet markers (CD40, CD40 ligand [CD40L], soluble CD40L, CD62P, β-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor-4) in 22 T2DM patients, 20 MD patients, 18 T2DM patients with MD, and 24 healthy controls. Platelet markers were elevated in MD (F(6,60) = 11.14, p < .001) and T2DM (F(6,60) = 13.07, p < .001). Subgroups did not differ in 5-HTor cortisol slope, whereas T2DMpatients without depression had significantly lower CAR than did healthy controls (F(1,61) = 7.46, p = .008). In healthy controls, cortisol slope correlated with platelet activity for CD40 (r = -0.43, p = .048) and 5-HTwas correlated with CD40L (r = 0.53, p = .007). In patients with both T2DMandMD, 5-HT and CD62P were correlated (r = 0.52, p = .033). Increased platelet activity in T2DM and MD may play a role in the association between diabetes, depression, and coronary artery disease. The present data suggest that group differences in cortisol or 5-HT as well as group-specific associations of cortisol or 5-HT with platelet markers might be of limited importance in the shared pathways of T2DM and depression in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease.Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2015; 1. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Platelets contribute to processes beyond thrombus formation and may play a so far underestimated role as an immune cell in various circumstances. This review outlines immune functions of platelets in host defense, but also how they may contribute to mechanisms of infectious diseases. A particular emphasis is placed on the interaction of platelets with other immune cells. Furthermore, this article outlines the features of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory vascular disease highlighting the role of platelet crosstalk with cellular and soluble factors involved in atheroprogression. Understanding, how platelets influence these processes of vascular remodeling will shed light on their role for tissue homeostasis beyond intravascular thrombosis. Finally, translational implications of platelet-mediated inflammation in atherosclerosis are discussed.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:98. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00098
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia, but the methods available for treating AF and its complications (of which the most important is thrombogenesis), as well as for assessing AF risk and underlying pathophysiology, are largely limited. Emerging evidence suggests a significant role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of AF. That evidence includes elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in AF subjects, the expression of inflammatory markers in cardiac tissues of AF patients and animal models of AF, and beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental AF paradigms. Inflammation is suggested to be linked to various pathological processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis, that promote AF substrate formation. Inflammation has also been associated with endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation cascade activation, leading to thrombogenesis. Thus, inflammation may contribute to both the occurrence/maintenance of AF and its thromboembolic complications. Here, we review the evidence for a role of inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers in the risk management and treatment of AF. We also summarize the current knowledge of inflammation-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms in AF pathophysiology and their potential as therapeutic targets. (Circ J 2015; 79: 495-502).Circulation Journal 02/2015; 79(3):495-502. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-15-0138 · 3.69 Impact Factor