The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
"Accordingly, increased platelet activation and elevated levels of CD154 were shown in patients with acute cerebral symptoms, myocardial infarction , and hypercholesterolemic subjects     . Healthy women with increased plasma levels of soluble CD40L were shown to be at risk for cardiovascular events . Furthermore, regarding the effect of estrogen on CD40 ligand expression, several studies have demonstrated an estrogen-dependent increase of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in monocytes-derived dendritic cells  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory disease, is characterized by pathologically altered levels of cytokines. We investigated whether smoking and/or oral contraceptives (OCs) affect the CD40/CD40L plasma levels and expression in young females without other risk factors for atherosclerosis.
Patients and methods:
A case-control single-center design was used. Expression levels of CD40/CD40L were analyzed in healthy non-pregnant, pre-menopausal, non-smoking women who did not take OCs (n=49), women who currently smoke and take OCs (n=40), and women who are only smokers (n=40) or currently take OCs (n=42).
In OC users, there was a significant increase in CD40 mRNA expression in circulating monocytes as compared with smokers and control group. However, there were no significant differences in CD40 mRNA expression in monocytes between smokers and non-smokers. Interestingly, CD40 mRNA expression in women taking OCs and currently smoking was significantly decreased compared to only OC users (p<0.001). With regard to plasma CD40 levels there were significant differences between OC-users and control group. However, contrary to our expectations, there were no significant differences in expression levels of CD40L between four groups. In vitro experiments demonstrated enhanced CD40 mRNA and surface expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with estrogens. Furthermore, nicotine pretreatment led to a suppression of estrogens stimulated CD40 induction.
In young healthy females without additional risk factors for atherosclerosis, OCs, but not smoking, are associated with dramatic changes in CD40 gene and plasma levels. These findings may be providing an important link between OCs and enhancement of pro-inflammatory and atherothrombotic conditions in healthy women.
Thrombosis Research 12/2014; 135(2). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.11.035 · 2.45 Impact Factor
"Although platelet P-selectin and IL-6 contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, associations between these factors remain obscure. It was also well reviewed that CD40–CD40L signalling has potential implications in atherosclerotic vascular diseases (Pamukcu et al. 2011). On the other hand, no rat model has evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on the CD40–CD40L dyad in "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate whether atorvastatin influenced the CD40-CD40L pathway in atherosclerosis formation in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided among 4 groups as follows: control (C), statin (S), 5% cholesterol fed (HC), and statin-administered hypercholesterolemic (HCS). Serum levels of lipids, soluble CD40L, platelet factor 4, and interleukin-6 were assayed with commercial kits. The number of platelets expressing surface P-selectin, CD40, and CD40L were determined by flow cytometry. Aortas were examined for fatty streaks. In the HC group, we observed a significant increase in serum lipid levels and platelet activation markers compared with the control group. Rats in the HCS group had a significant decrease in lipid levels and downregulation in the number of platelets expressing surface P-selectin, CD40, and CD40L compared with the HC group. We observed decreased fatty streak formations in aortas in HCS rats. A positive correlation was found for platelet activation markers and atherosclerotic fatty streak formations. Regression analysis revealed that the predictor of atherosclerosis was CD40L. Our study suggests that in a rat hypercholesterolemic model, statin treatment may influence the CD40-CD40L dyad, and that this effect is parallelled by a suppression of progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 09/2013; 91(9):680-5. DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2012-0325 · 1.77 Impact Factor
"The in vitro activation tests showed that all sizes of the silica particles had the potential to activate coagulation factor XII, with activation apparently increasing as the size of the particles decreased (Figure 6a). In addition, to evaluate the activation of platelets, we measured the level of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), which are involved in stimulating platelets [20,21], in the plasma of each silica-particle-treated mouse. In nanosilica-particle-treated groups, the levels of sCD40L and vWF tended to slightly increase with decreasing particle size (Figure 6b,c). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials with particle sizes <100 nm have been already applied in various applications such as cosmetics, medicines, and foods. Therefore, ensuring the safety of nanomaterials is becoming increasingly important. Here we examined the localization and biological responses of intranasally administered amorphous nanosilica particles in mice, focusing on the coagulation system.
We used nanosilica particles with diameters of 30, 70, or 100 nm (nSP30, nSP70, or nSP100 respectively), and conventional microscale silica particles with diameters of 300 or 1000 nm (mSP300 or mSP1000, respectively). BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to nSP30, nSP70, nSP100, mSP300, or mSP1000 at concentrations of 500 mug/mouse for 7 days. After 24 hours of last administration, we performed the in vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis, hematological examination and coagulation tests.
In vivo transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanosilica particles with a diameter <100 nm were absorbed through the nasal cavity and were distributed into liver and brain. Hematological examination and coagulation tests showed that platelet counts decreased and that the activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged in nSP30 or nSP70-treated groups of mice, indicating that nanosilica particles might have activated a coagulation cascade. In addition, in in vitro activation tests of human plasma, nanosilica particles had greater potential than did conventional microscale silica particles to activate coagulation factor XII. In nanosilica-particle-treated groups, the levels of soluble CD40 ligand, and von Willebrand factor which are involved in stimulating platelets tended to slightly increase with decreasing particle size.
These results suggest that intranasally administered nanosilica particles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm could induce abnormal activation of the coagulation system through the activation of an intrinsic coagulation cascade. This study provides information to advance the development of safe and effective nanosilica particles.
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