The CD40-CD40L system in cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT The CD40-CD40L system is a pathway which is associated with both prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. CD40 and its ligand were first discovered on the surface of activated T cells, but its presence on B cells, antigen-presenting cells, mast cells, and finally platelets, is evident. The soluble form of CD40L (sCD40L) is derived mainly from activated platelets and contributes to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. Indeed, sCD40L has autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities, and it enhances platelet activation, aggregation, and platelet-leucocyte conjugation that may lead to atherothrombosis. It has even been suggested that sCD40L may play a pathogenic role in triggering acute coronary syndromes. Conversely, blockade of this pathway with anti-CD40L antibodies may prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Concentrations of sCD40L also predict risk of future cardiovascular disease in healthy women and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, there are controversial and uncertain points over the application of this biomarker to clinical cardiology. In this review, we provide an overview of potential implications of CD40-CD40L signalling and sCD40L as a biomarker in patients with atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Mariana S Parahuleva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: : Atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory disease, is characterized by pathologically altered levels of cytokines. We investigated whether smoking and/or oral contraceptives (OCs) affect the CD40/CD40L plasma levels and expression in young females without other risk factors for atherosclerosis.Thrombosis Research 12/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a transmembrane molecule of crucial interest in cell signaling in innate and adaptive immunity. It is expressed by a variety of cells, but mainly by activated T-lymphocytes and platelets. CD40L may be cleaved into a soluble form (sCD40L) that has a cytokine-like activity. Both forms bind to several receptors, including CD40. This interaction is necessary for the antigen specific immune response. Furthermore, CD40L and sCD40L are involved in inflammation and a panoply of immune related and vascular pathologies. Soluble CD40L is primarily produced by platelets after activation, degranulation and cleavage, which may present a problem for transfusion. Soluble CD40L is involved in adverse transfusion events including transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Although platelet storage designed for transfusion occurs in sterile conditions, platelets are activated and release sCD40L without known agonists. Recently, proteomic studies identified signaling pathways activated in platelet concentrates. Soluble CD40L is a good candidate for platelet activation in an auto-amplification loop. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory role of CD40L in physiological and pathological conditions. We will focus on the main signaling pathways activated by CD40L after binding to its different receptors.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2014; 15(12):22342-22364. · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysfunction, serotonergic system alterations, and enhanced platelet activity may contribute to the increased cardiac risk in depression. This exploratory study examined associations between cortisol parameters, platelet serotonin (5-HT) content, and platelet activity markers in patients with newly diagnosed major depression (MD) and/or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with healthy controls. We compared cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal decrease in salivary cortisol concentrations (slope), platelet 5-HT, and platelet markers (CD40, CD40 ligand [CD40L], soluble CD40L, CD62P, β-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor-4) in 22 T2DM patients, 20 MD patients, 18 T2DM patients with MD, and 24 healthy controls. Platelet markers were elevated in MD (F(6,60) = 11.14, p < .001) and T2DM (F(6,60) = 13.07, p < .001). Subgroups did not differ in 5-HTor cortisol slope, whereas T2DMpatients without depression had significantly lower CAR than did healthy controls (F(1,61) = 7.46, p = .008). In healthy controls, cortisol slope correlated with platelet activity for CD40 (r = -0.43, p = .048) and 5-HTwas correlated with CD40L (r = 0.53, p = .007). In patients with both T2DMandMD, 5-HT and CD62P were correlated (r = 0.52, p = .033). Increased platelet activity in T2DM and MD may play a role in the association between diabetes, depression, and coronary artery disease. The present data suggest that group differences in cortisol or 5-HT as well as group-specific associations of cortisol or 5-HT with platelet markers might be of limited importance in the shared pathways of T2DM and depression in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease.Psychosomatic medicine. 01/2015;