Pathological Video Game Use Among Youths: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3180, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 02/2011; 127(2):e319-29. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1353
Source: PubMed


We aimed to measure the prevalence and length of the problem of pathological video gaming or Internet use, to identify risk and protective factors, to determine whether pathological gaming is a primary or secondary problem, and to identify outcomes for individuals who become or stop being pathological gamers.
A 2-year, longitudinal, panel study was performed with a general elementary and secondary school population in Singapore, including 3034 children in grades 3 (N = 743), 4 (N = 711), 7 (N = 916), and 8 (N = 664). Several hypothesized risk and protective factors for developing or overcoming pathological gaming were measured, including weekly amount of game play, impulsivity, social competence, depression, social phobia, anxiety, and school performance.
The prevalence of pathological gaming was similar to that in other countries (∼9%). Greater amounts of gaming, lower social competence, and greater impulsivity seemed to act as risk factors for becoming pathological gamers, whereas depression, anxiety, social phobias, and lower school performance seemed to act as outcomes of pathological gaming.
This study adds important information to the discussion about whether video game "addiction" is similar to other addictive behaviors, demonstrating that it can last for years and is not solely a symptom of comorbid disorders.

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Available from: Douglas A Gentile, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "This study theoretically assumed that OC symptoms would precede IA symptoms (Dong et al., 2011). However, other studies demonstrated that IA symptoms can precede mental health problems (e.g., Gentile et al., 2011). It is likely that there is no single path for primary and secondary dysfunction, and that "
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    ABSTRACT: nternet addiction (IA) in adolescence was longitudinally examined in relation to individual obsessive–compulsive symptoms and the personality trait of openness to experience OTE) at the classroom level. The study consists of a two-point measure of a normative sample comprising 648 Greek adolescents (retention = 363, age 16–18 years, wave 1: age = 15.75 years, SD = 0.57, males = 46.2%, females = 53.8%). IA was assessed with the IA Test (Young, K. S. [1998]. Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction—And a winning strategy for recovery. New York, NY: Wiley), obsessive–compulsive symptoms with the Symptom CHECK list 90 revised (Derogatis, L. R., & Savitz, K. L. [1999]. The SCL-90-R, brief symptom inventory, and matching clinical rating scales. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (2nd ed., pp. 679–724). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers) and OTE with the FFFK (Asendorpf, J. D., & van Aken, M. A. G. [2003]. Validity of big five personality judgments in childhood: A 9 year longitudinal study. European Journal of Personality, 17, 1–17). A three-level hierarchical linear model investigated individual- and classroom-level effects on IA score and its changes over time. The findings revealed that IA at the initial level was associated with the obsessive–compulsive symptoms of the individual and negatively related to classroom-level OTE. However, adolescents high on obsessive–compulsive symptoms in high on OTE classrooms presented higher IA scores over time.
    European Journal of Developmental Psychology 08/2015; Published online(Ahead of print). DOI:10.1080/17405629.2015.1066670 · 1.22 Impact Factor
    • "Our research identified that addiction had a direct effect on mental healthsymptoms of stress, anxiety and depression, whereas engagement had only a direct effect on anxiety but not stress or depression, after accounting for coping. This finding contributes to previous discussions on when intense gaming may or may not become problematic (Charlton & Danforth, 2007; Gentile et al., 2011; Mentzoni et al., 2011; Petry, 2013). The current study also confirms the co-occurrence of poorer mental healthincreased symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression with video game addiction and maladaptive coping. "
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11469-015-9578-6 · 0.99 Impact Factor
    • "The prevalence of POG ranges from 3 to 10% (Deleuze et al., 2015; Gentile, 2009; Gentile et al., 2011; Kuss, Griffiths, Karila, & Billieux, 2014) with high levels of comorbidity observed in relation to attention deficit disorder (e.g. Batthyany, Muller, Benker, & Wolfling, 2009; Bioulac, Arfi, & Bouvard, 2008; Chan & Rabinowitz, 2006), depression and social anxiety (Gentile et al., 2011; Peng & Liu, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive behaviors 07/2015; in press. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.007 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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