Amyloid beta impairs mitochondrial anterograde transport and degenerates synapses in Alzheimer's disease neurons.
ABSTRACT Loss of synapses and synaptic damage are the best correlates of cognitive decline identified in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mitochondrial oxidative damage and synaptic pathology have been identified as early events in the progression of AD. The progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria are hypothesized to cause synaptic degeneration and cognitive decline in patients with AD. However, the precise mechanistic link between Aβ and mitochondria is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of Aβ on mitochondrial axonal transport and synaptic alterations in AD. Using mouse hippocampal neurons and Aβ(25-35) peptide, we studied axonal transport of mitochondria, including mitochondrial motility, mitochondrial length and size, mitochondrial index per neurite, and synaptic alterations of the hippocampal neurons. In the PBS-treated neurons, 36.4±4.7% of the observed mitochondria were motile, with 21.0±1.3% moving anterograde and 15.4±3.4% moving retrograde and the average speed of movement was 12.1±1.8μm/min. In contrast, in the Aβ-treated neurons, the number of motile mitochondria were significantly less, at 20.4±2.6% (P<0.032), as were those moving anterograde (10.1±2.6%, P<0.016) relative to PBS-treated neurons, suggesting that the Aβ(25-35) peptide impairs axonal transport of mitochondria in AD neurons. In the Aβ-treated neurons, the average speed of motile mitochondria was also less, at 10.9±1.9μm/min, and mitochondrial length was significantly decreased. Further, synaptic immunoreactivity was also significantly less in the Aβ-treated neurons relative to the PBS-treated neurons, indicating that Aβ affects synaptic viability. These findings suggest that, in neurons affected by AD, Aβ is toxic, impairs mitochondrial movements, reduces mitochondrial length, and causes synaptic degeneration.
Article: Morphological adaptive response of the synaptic junctional zones in the human dentate gyrus during aging and Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A computer-assisted morphometric study has been carried out on ethanol phosphotungstic acid (E-PTA) stained synaptic junctions in the human dentate gyrus supragranular layer from adult, old and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-affected patients. The number of synapses per unit volume of tissue (Nv = numerical density), the average area of the single junction (S) and the total area of the synaptic contact zones in a unit volume of tissue (Sv = surface density) were the 3 parameters taken into account. The synapse to neurone ratio was also calculated for each patient. During physiological aging, Nv and Sv significantly decreased and S increased, respectively. In the AD hippocampi, Nv and Sv underwent a further decrease which was in the range of more than 40% with reference to the adult values. S was the same as the old control group. In comparison with the adult values, the number of synapse/neurone decreased by 15.6 and 48% in old and AD patients, respectively. Nv, S and Sv, while reporting on discrete ultrastructural features of the synaptic junctional zones, are closely related to each other and, taken together per group of patients, may represent a reliable index of the morphological adaptive changes taking place at the synapses. Thus, the significant increase of S both in old and AD hippocampi may be regarded as a CNS plastic response to aging and disease, although the marked decrease of Nv and Sv supports that in AD synaptic ultrastructural alterations proceed beyond a critical threshold for functional recovery.Brain Research 06/1990; 517(1-2):69-75. · 2.73 Impact Factor
Article: Cyclophilin D deficiency attenuates mitochondrial and neuronal perturbation and ameliorates learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin D (CypD, encoded by Ppif) is an integral part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, whose opening leads to cell death. Here we show that interaction of CypD with mitochondrial amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) potentiates mitochondrial, neuronal and synaptic stress. The CypD-deficient cortical mitochondria are resistant to Abeta- and Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling and permeability transition. Additionally, they have an increased calcium buffering capacity and generate fewer mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the absence of CypD protects neurons from Abeta- and oxidative stress-induced cell death. Notably, CypD deficiency substantially improves learning and memory and synaptic function in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and alleviates Abeta-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation. Thus, the CypD-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore is directly linked to the cellular and synaptic perturbations observed in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Blockade of CypD may be a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease.Nature medicine 10/2008; 14(10):1097-105. · 27.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified reinforcing properties associated with tanning and suggest a possible physiologic mechanism and addiction driving tanning behavior. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. We investigated a variety of substance dependence models to define what constitutes dependence/addiction and to determine how current studies on tanning meet these criteria. In some individuals, tanning has met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria for a substance-related disorder or tanning-modified Cut Down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener criteria. Trial studies have demonstrated the induction of withdrawal symptoms in frequent tanners. Additional studies are needed to investigate the associated dependency and addiction more fully and to elucidate its similarities to other better-known addictive syndromes. Tanning is a problem behavior, both as a health risk and as a possible dependency. Future studies, especially in the area of cognitive mapping and cue-related stimuli are needed. Imaging studies may be important in elucidating whether the same areas of the brain are involved in tanning addiction as in other addictive syndromes.Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 03/2009; 25(1):12-9. · 1.30 Impact Factor