Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy to lithium and divalproex in depressed patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and a recent substance use disorder: a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
ABSTRACT To pilot the efficacy and safety data of lamotrigine adjunctive therapy to lithium and divalproex in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder (RCBD) and a recent substance use disorder (SUD).
Structured clinical interviews were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnosis of RCBD, SUDs, and other Axis I disorders. Patients who did not meet the criteria for a bimodal response after up to 16-weeks of open-label treatment with lithium plus divalproex, as measured by MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) ≤ 19, YMRS ( Young Mania Rating Scale) ≤ 12 and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) = 51 for 4 weeks, were randomized to a 12- week, double-blind addition of lamotrigine or placebo to lithium plus divalproex. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed with ANCOVA, t-test, or chi-square/Fisher's exact.
Of 98 patients enrolled into the study, 36 were randomized to receive lamotrigine (n = 18) or placebo (n ± 18), and 8 patients per arm completed the study. No patient discontinued due to adverse events. The change in MADRS total score from baseline to endpoint was -9.1 ± 11.2 in lamotrigine-treated patients versus -4.5 ± 13.1 in placebo-treated patients (p = 0.27). There were no significant differences in changes in YMRS total scores and rates of response or remission.
Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy was well tolerated in patients previously non-responsive to initial treatment of lithium plus divalproex. A larger study is warranted to determine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive lamotrigine versus placebo in RCBD with a recent SUD.
Article: Lamotrigine in the acute treatment of bipolar depression: results of five double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of lamotrigine as maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), particularly for delaying depressive episodes, is well established, but its efficacy in the acute treatment of bipolar depression is less clear. This paper reports the results of five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lamotrigine monotherapy for the acute treatment of bipolar depression. Adult subjects with bipolar I or II disorder experiencing a depressive episode were randomized to placebo or lamotrigine monotherapy (after titration, at a fixed dose of 50 mg or 200 mg daily in Study 1; a flexible dose of 100-400 mg daily in Study 2; or a fixed dose of 200 mg daily in Studies 3, 4 and 5) for 7-10 weeks. Lamotrigine did not differ significantly from placebo on primary efficacy endpoints [17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Studies 1 and 2; Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in Studies 3, 4 and 5]. In Study 1, lamotrigine significantly separated from placebo on some secondary measures of efficacy, including the MADRS, the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and the CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), but seldom differed on secondary efficacy endpoints for the other studies. Lamotrigine monotherapy did not demonstrate efficacy in the acute treatment of bipolar depression in four out of five placebo-controlled clinical studies. Lamotrigine was well tolerated in the acute treatment of bipolar depression.Bipolar Disorders 04/2008; 10(2):323-33. · 5.29 Impact Factor
Article: Predictors of nonadherence among individuals with bipolar disorder receiving treatment in a community mental health clinic.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Subjective experience of illness is a critical component of treatment adherence in populations with bipolar disorder (BPD). This cross-sectional analysis examined clinical and subjective variables in relation to adherence in 140 individuals with BPD receiving treatment with mood-stabilizing medication. Nonadherence was defined as missing 30% or more of medication on the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, a self-reported measure of medication treatment adherence. Adherent and nonadherent groups were compared on measures of attitudes toward illness and treatment including the Attitudes toward Mood Stabilizers Questionnaire, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire, the Rating of Medication Influences, and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Except for substance abuse comorbidity, adherent individuals (n = 113, 80.7%) did not differ from nonadherent individuals (n = 27, 19.3%) on clinical variables. However, nonadherent individuals had reduced insight into illness, more negative attitudes toward medications, fewer reasons for adherence, and more perceived reasons for nonadherence compared with adherent individuals. The strongest attitudinal predictors for nonadherence were difficulties with medication routines (odds ratio = 2.2) and negative attitudes toward drugs in general (odds ratio = 2.3). Results interpretation is limited by cross-sectional design, self-report methodology, and sample size. Comorbid substance abuse, negative attitudes toward mood-stabilizing medication, and difficulty managing to take medication in the context of one's daily schedule are primary determinants of medication treatment adherence. A patient-centered collaborative model of care that addresses negative attitudes toward medication and difficulty coping with medication routines may be ideally suited to address individual adherence challenges.Comprehensive psychiatry 50(2):100-7. · 2.08 Impact Factor