Specificity of Jumping, Sprinting, and Quick Change-of-Direction Motor Abilities

Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 05/2011; 25(5):1249-55. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77df
Source: PubMed


Despite being addressed in a number of previous studies, the controversy regarding the generality vs. specificity of jumping, sprinting, and change-of-direction speed (CODS) abilities still remains unresolved. Here, we tested the hypotheses that jumping, sprinting, and CODS represent separate and specific motor abilities, and that the jumping ability based on concentric and slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is relatively independent of the same ability based on fast SSC. Eighty-seven male college athletes performed 3 concentric/slow SSC and 3 fast SSC jump tests, 4 sprint tests, and 3 CODS tests. The hypotheses were tested by means of the principal component factor analysis (PCA). The applied procedure reduced the greater number of manifest variables to a smaller number of independent latent dimensions or factors and, thereafter, assessed the relationships among them. The PCA revealed a relatively simple and consistent structure consisting of 4 separate factors that explained nearly 80% of variance of the applied tests. The factors appeared to correspond to the sprinting ability, concentric/slow SSC jumping ability, fast SSC jumping ability, and CODS ability. Further analyses revealed that the extracted factors were mainly independent, because they shared only between 6 and 23% of the common variance. These results supported our hypotheses regarding the specificity of jumping, sprinting, and CODS abilities, and specificity of the concentric/slow SSC and fast SSC jumping abilities. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should, therefore, use separate performance tests for the assessment of the studied abilities.

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Available from: Goran Markovic, Jan 11, 2014
    • "Relationships between the referees' fitness test performances were examined using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (r), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). To interpret the results, the threshold values for Pearson product-moment used by Salaj et al. [17] were used: low ( "
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    • "Indeed, the IRSA exercise increases the total amount of this variable in training, which results in improvements in jumping tasks that require such a neuromuscular component (i.e., the SJ). Salaj and Markovic (2011) reported that jumping , sprinting and change of direction performance could be described as separate and mainly independent (i.e., specific) motor abilities because there is a low-to-moderate correlations among them. However, the correlations explain only the associations but not the cause and effect. "
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    • "These results are in agreement with other studies performed in soccer (Sporis, et al., 2010), where the CV did not exceed 5.6%. The relationship between acceleration, jumping and CODA is still unclear, and these motor abilities can be considered independent (Salaj & Markovic, 2011). We did find correlations among several tests; however, the magnitude of the correlations found was not high (r>.7). "
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