Specificity of Jumping, Sprinting, and Quick Change-of-Direction Motor Abilities

Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 05/2011; 25(5):1249-55. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77df
Source: PubMed


Despite being addressed in a number of previous studies, the controversy regarding the generality vs. specificity of jumping, sprinting, and change-of-direction speed (CODS) abilities still remains unresolved. Here, we tested the hypotheses that jumping, sprinting, and CODS represent separate and specific motor abilities, and that the jumping ability based on concentric and slow stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) is relatively independent of the same ability based on fast SSC. Eighty-seven male college athletes performed 3 concentric/slow SSC and 3 fast SSC jump tests, 4 sprint tests, and 3 CODS tests. The hypotheses were tested by means of the principal component factor analysis (PCA). The applied procedure reduced the greater number of manifest variables to a smaller number of independent latent dimensions or factors and, thereafter, assessed the relationships among them. The PCA revealed a relatively simple and consistent structure consisting of 4 separate factors that explained nearly 80% of variance of the applied tests. The factors appeared to correspond to the sprinting ability, concentric/slow SSC jumping ability, fast SSC jumping ability, and CODS ability. Further analyses revealed that the extracted factors were mainly independent, because they shared only between 6 and 23% of the common variance. These results supported our hypotheses regarding the specificity of jumping, sprinting, and CODS abilities, and specificity of the concentric/slow SSC and fast SSC jumping abilities. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should, therefore, use separate performance tests for the assessment of the studied abilities.

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Available from: Goran Markovic, Jan 11, 2014
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    • "Indeed, the IRSA exercise increases the total amount of this variable in training, which results in improvements in jumping tasks that require such a neuromuscular component (i.e., the SJ). Salaj and Markovic (2011) reported that jumping , sprinting and change of direction performance could be described as separate and mainly independent (i.e., specific) motor abilities because there is a low-to-moderate correlations among them. However, the correlations explain only the associations but not the cause and effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the training effects based on repeated sprint ability (RSA) (with one change of direction) with an intensive repeated sprint ability (IRSA) (with two changes of direction) on jump performance and aerobic fitness. Eighteen male basketball players were assigned to repeated sprint ability and intensive repeated sprint ability training groups (RSAG and IRSAG). RSA, IRSA, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test were assessed before and after four training weeks. The RSA and IRSA trainings consisted of three sets of six sprints (first two weeks) and eight sprints (second two weeks) with 4-min sets recovery and 20-s of sprints recovery. Four weeks of training led to an overall improvement in most of the measures of RSA, but little evidence of any differences between the two training modes. Jump performance was enhanced: CMJ of 7.5% (P < 0.0001) and 3.1% (P = 0.016) in IRSAG and RSAG respectively. While SJ improved of 5.3% (P = 0.003) for IRSAG and 3.4% (P = 0.095) for RSAG. Conversely the Yo-Yo distance increased 21% (P = 0.301) and 34% (P = 0.017) in IRSAG and RSAG respectively. Therefore, short-term repeated sprint training with one/two changes of direction promotes improvements in both RSA and IRSA respectively but the better increase on jump performance shown a few changes on sprint and endurance performances.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.996182 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "These results are in agreement with other studies performed in soccer (Sporis, et al., 2010), where the CV did not exceed 5.6%. The relationship between acceleration, jumping and CODA is still unclear, and these motor abilities can be considered independent (Salaj & Markovic, 2011). We did find correlations among several tests; however, the magnitude of the correlations found was not high (r>.7). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to profile the physical characteristics of soccer players measured by acceleration, vertical jump (VJ), horizontal jump (HJ) and change of direction ability (CODA) tests, and quantify the relationships between these characteristics. Additionally, leg asymmetries between dominant and non-dominant legs during unilateral VJ and HJ were assessed. Thirty nine male soccer players (22.9 ± 2.8 years, 179.9 ± 6.01 cm, 77.0 ± 8.3 kg) competing in third division of the Spanish Soccer League participated in this study. Soccer experience by these players consisted of 15.19 ± 3.15 years. Significant moderate correlations (p < 0.05) were found between all HJ tests and the modified agility (MAT) or the 505 test, and between all VJ tests and the Y20 or the 505. Significant differences between dominant and non-dominant limbs were found for the horizontal drop jump test (p = 0.001, d = 0.66) and horizontal three jump test (p = 0.017, d = 0.33). No significant differences between dominant and non-dominant limbs were found for VJ tests. The correlation between jumping and CODA varied depending on the characteristics of the type of tests. The significant leg asymmetry in horizontal jumps with bounds found in the present study suggests that soccer players have higher leg asymmetries in the horizontal jump compared to the vertical jump.
    Kinesiology 06/2015; 46(2):194-201. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Table 2 shows the Pearson correlation coefficients and two-tailed statistical significance levels. The threshold values for Pearson product-moment [44] were used to interpret the results: low (r ≤ 0.3), moderate (0.3 < r ≤ 0.7), and high (r > 0.7). There were no significant correlations between any variables for p < 0.05. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years) volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2) was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2) was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102). This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics.
    Biology of Sport 06/2015; 30(2):91-5. DOI:10.5604/20831862.1044223 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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