Cytoprotective effects of albumin, nitrosated or reduced, in cultured rat pulmonary vascular cells.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.52). 03/2011; 300(4):L526-33. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00282.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT S-nitrosoalbumin (SNO-Alb) has been shown to be an efficacious cytoprotective molecule in acute lung injury, as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury in heart and skeletal muscle. Nonetheless, limited information is available on the cellular mechanism of such protection. Accordingly, we investigated the protective effects of SNO-Alb [ and its denitrosated congener, reduced albumin (SH-Alb) ] on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH)-mediated cytotoxicity in cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMEC), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)-mediated cytotoxicity in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (RPASMC). We noted that tBH caused a concentration-dependent necrosis in RPMEC, and pretreatment of RPMEC with SNO-Alb dose-dependently decreased the sensitivity of these cells to tBH. A component of SNO-Alb cytoprotection was sensitive to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and was associated with activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phenomena that could be reproduced with pretreatment with SH-Alb. Exogenous H(2)S caused concentration-dependent apoptosis in RPASMC due to activation of ERK1/2 and p38, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced H(2)S-mediated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner that was associated with SNO-Alb-mediated inhibition of activation of ERK1/2 and p38. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced toxicity of 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide in an N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive fashion in RPASMC that expressed gp60 and neuronal NOS and was capable of transporting fluorescently labeled SH-Alb. Therefore, SNO-Alb is cytoprotective against models of oxidant-induced necrosis (tBH) and inhibitors of cellular respiration and apoptosis (H(2)S) in both pulmonary endothelium and smooth muscle, respectively, and a component of such protection can be attributed to a SH-Alb-mediated activation of constitutive NOS.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation has been accepted as a common event in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases, including atherogenesis and intimal hyperplasia. Delivery of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate l-arginine, pharmacological nitric oxide (NO) donors, NO gas or overexpression of NOS proteins can inhibit SMC proliferation and reduce the injury responses within the blood vessel wall. Although commercial development of NO donors that attempt to provide exogenous delivery of NO has accelerated over the last few years, none of the currently available products can provide controlled, sustained, time-tunable release of NO. Nitrosamine-based NO donors, prepared in our laboratory, present a unique and innovative alternative for possible treatments for long-term NO deficiency-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, asthma, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. A family of secondary amines prepared via nucleophilic aromatic displacement reactions could be readily N-nitrosated to produce NO donors. NO release takes place in three distinct phases. During the initial phase, the release rate is extremely fast. In the second phase, the release is slower and the rate remains essentially the same during the final stage. These compounds inhibited up to 35% human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner.
    Chemical Biology &amp Drug Design 07/2011; 78(4):527-34. · 2.51 Impact Factor