Cytoprotective effects of albumin, nitrosated or reduced, in cultured rat pulmonary vascular cells

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 03/2011; 300(4):L526-33. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00282.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT S-nitrosoalbumin (SNO-Alb) has been shown to be an efficacious cytoprotective molecule in acute lung injury, as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury in heart and skeletal muscle. Nonetheless, limited information is available on the cellular mechanism of such protection. Accordingly, we investigated the protective effects of SNO-Alb [ and its denitrosated congener, reduced albumin (SH-Alb) ] on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH)-mediated cytotoxicity in cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMEC), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)-mediated cytotoxicity in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (RPASMC). We noted that tBH caused a concentration-dependent necrosis in RPMEC, and pretreatment of RPMEC with SNO-Alb dose-dependently decreased the sensitivity of these cells to tBH. A component of SNO-Alb cytoprotection was sensitive to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and was associated with activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phenomena that could be reproduced with pretreatment with SH-Alb. Exogenous H(2)S caused concentration-dependent apoptosis in RPASMC due to activation of ERK1/2 and p38, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced H(2)S-mediated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner that was associated with SNO-Alb-mediated inhibition of activation of ERK1/2 and p38. Pretreatment with SNO-Alb reduced toxicity of 1 mM sodium hydrosulfide in an N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive fashion in RPASMC that expressed gp60 and neuronal NOS and was capable of transporting fluorescently labeled SH-Alb. Therefore, SNO-Alb is cytoprotective against models of oxidant-induced necrosis (tBH) and inhibitors of cellular respiration and apoptosis (H(2)S) in both pulmonary endothelium and smooth muscle, respectively, and a component of such protection can be attributed to a SH-Alb-mediated activation of constitutive NOS.

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