In mammalian oocytes, histone H3 and histone H4 (H4) in the chromatin are highly acetylated at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, and become globally deacetylated after GV breakdown (GVBD). Although nuclear core histones can be exchanged by cytoplasmic free histones in somatic cells, it remains unknown whether this is also the case in mammalian oocytes. In this study, we examined the histone exchange activity in maturing porcine oocytes before and after GVBD, and investigated the correlations between this activity and both the acetylation profile of the H4 N-terminal tail and the global histone acetylation level in the chromatin. We injected Flag-tagged H4 (H4-Flag) mRNA into GV oocytes, and found that the Flag signal was localized to the chromatin. We next injected mRNAs of mutated H4-Flag, which lack all acetylation sites and the whole N-terminal tail, and found that the H4 N-terminal tail and its modification were not necessary for histone incorporation into chromatin. Despite the lack of acetylation sites, the mutated H4-Flag mRNA injection did not decrease the acetylation level on the chromatin, indicating that the histone exchange occurs partially in the GV chromatin. In contrast to GV oocytes, the Flag signal was not detected on the chromatin after the injection of H4-Flag protein into the second meiotic metaphase oocytes. These results suggest that histone exchange activity changes during meiotic maturation in porcine oocytes, and that the acetylation profile of the H4 N-terminal tail has no effect on histone incorporation into chromatin and does not affect the global level of histone acetylation in it.
"HAT1 has been implicated in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in porcine oocytes, which lead to a deterioration of oocyte quality through acetylation of H4K12 (Cui et al. 2011). Histone H4 is highly acetylated at the GV stage, but becomes globally deacetylated after GVBD (Endo et al. 2011). The finding that HAT1 is more highly expressed in SM oocytes compared to either LG or SM+GDNF oocytes is consistent with the SM group containing fewer oocytes successfully reaching the MII stage, and those that do are possibly of a lower quality due to improper histone acetylation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In some insect species, two sites of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis have been reported: the very well documented corpora allata that secrete JH for "general use", and the reproductive system, in particular the male accessory glands, in which the function of the sometimes huge amounts of JH (e.g. in Hyalophora cecropia) remains to be clarified. A recent finding in Schistocerca gregaria, namely that suppression of the ecdysteroid peak preceding a molt by RNAi of the Halloween genes spook, phantom and shade does not impede normal molting, challenges the (never experimentally proven) classical concept that such a peak is causally linked to a molt. Recent developments in epigenetic control of gene expression in both the honey bee and in locusts suggest that, in addition to the classical scheme of hormone-receptor (membrane- and/or nuclear) mode of action, there may be a third way. Upon combining these and other orphan data that do not fit in the commonly accepted textbook schemes, we here advance the working hypothesis that both JH and ecdysone might be important but overlooked players in epigenetic control of gene expression, in particular at extreme concentrations (peak values or total absence). In this review, we put forward how epi-endocrinology can complement classical arthropod endocrinology.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 02/2013; 188(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.02.004 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The core histone is composed of four proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Investigation of the modification patterns of histones
is critical to understanding their roles in biological processes. Although histone modification is observed in multiple cells
and tissues, little is known about its function in spermatogenesis. We focused on the modification patterns of histone H4
during murine spermatogenesis. We demonstrated that the individual N-terminal sites of H4 show different modification
patterns during the differentiation of male germ cells. The methylation pattern varied depending on the residues that were
mono-, di-, or tri-methylated. All the H4 modifications were high during the meiotic prophase, suggesting that histone H4
modification plays an important role during this stage of spermatogenesis. Elongating spermatids showed increased acetylation
of histone H4, which may be associated with a histone-to-protamine substitution. Our results provide further insight into the
specific relationship between histone H4 modification and gene expression during spermatogenesis, which could help to
elucidate the epigenetic disorders underlying male infertility.
Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2014; 60(5):383-387. DOI:10.1262/jrd.2014-018 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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